Field Notebook 3 transcription

Field Notes of Junius Henderson. Transcribed by Peter Robinson, 2001. comments in double parentheses (( )) added by PR, and parenthetical statements by Henderson in the notebook itself are in single parentheses ( ). I have translated all his “+” marks to “and”, have written (sic) after words where I think there are grammatical/spelling errors, have italicized the Linnaean names, and have placed an interrogation (?) where I am not sure of the orthography.

((Note book 3))

Boulder, Colo., Jany 26, 1909

Bright, windy morning, 40˚ at 7 a. m. Went to University for receipt book, etc. Then took 11:30 train for Ft. Collins, reaching there at 1:15. Went to Northern Hotel, got lunch ordered team for tomorrow at Tate’s and spent balance of day reading and writing. Retired at 8:45.

Ft. Collins, Jany 27, 1909

Arose at 5:45. Left hotel at 7 a.m. with team and driver from Tate’s. Cloudy and cold, east wind, clearing and warming toward noon. Took Rocky Ridge road. Saw big flock blackbirds, numerous horned larks, several hawks and magpies and one meadowlark. Reached mouth of Box Elder at 10 a.m.
N of creek, Niobrara and Dakota dip 66˚, strike N 55˚ E. Benton measures 143 yds horizontally across and Dakota about 100 yards. S of creek Niobrara dips 82˚ strike N 45˚ E carries it directly into outcrops on N side. N end of S side outcrop swings to N for last few feet. 75 horizontal yards across Benton and 75 across Dakota.
Found no yellow ss in Jurassic at mouth of canyon, but the l.s. containing the fossils (of which we have had slides made) and one foot (or more) concretionary zone is present. In isolated hill inside mouth of canyon the deep red Lykins passes above into pinkish roundly massive s.s., which abruptly changes to whitish, in turn abruptly but apparently conformably into angular yellow s.s. Probably that in which Hayden found Pentacrinus and Ostrea. Above this is the fossiliferous l.s. At one point there is a marked unconformity near base of Jura for 50 ft thus ((drawing in field book)).
Worked back S of Niobrara ridge, found no fossils in Benton and only Ostrea and Inoceramus fragments in the Dakota. Saw white tailed jack rabbit.
Then came back to Ft. Collins by road which passes the mouth of Owl Canyon drainage. Started back at 2:30 reaching hotel at 5:20. has been warm walking this afternoon, and bright, but a cool breeze which made overcoat comfortable when driving.

Ft. Collins, Jan 28, 1909

Cloudy, a strong, cold north wind. Arose at 7 a.m., left for Boulder at 8 a.m.

Boulder, Feby 13, 1909

Cloudy, east wind. W. W. Robbins and I started for Green Mt. Via Skunk Canyon at 9:30 a.m. Saw only usual number of magpies and long crested jays, one buzzard, a few chickadees one canyon or winter wren and one pine squirrel. Robbins shot the squirrel. Not a junco, tree sparrow or any other species. At noon it began snowing and continued till we reached home at 2 p.m. and balance of day.

Tuesday, Mch 2, 1909

Started for Ft. Collins with G. W. Bartholomew of the Portland Cement Co. on 7:50 p.m. train. Windy. Reached Ft. Collins on time and went to Northern Hotel.

Wednesday Mch 3, 1909

Started with Bartholomew and team from Daly and Nelson’s at 7:30 a.m., for Owl Canyon. Saw numerous shore larks and red winged blackbirds. Examined gypsum, found section thus in the Lykins:
Limestone capping escarpment
Red clay 75 ft
Gypsum 25 ft
Covered 10 ft.
Crossbedded sandstone.

Reached Collins at 3:10 p.m. Gypsum at Owl canyon is crossed by west line of sec 6, tp 9 N R 69 W. Returned to Boulder in Evening, reaching here at 6 p.m. Bartholomew paid me $20.00 for the trip and all expenses.

Boulder, Colo., March 23, 1909

Delightful morning, but hazy clouds. I started alone up Gregory Canyon at 7:30 a.m. Six meadowlarks before reaching mouth of canyon. Saw Junco sp. at mouth of Gregory Canyon. Further up saw nuthatches and took a chipmunk and chickadee. Saw a Clarke nutcracker. Passed over the divide into bear Canyon, where nutcrackers were plentiful, as well as chickadees and nuthatches. Shot another chickadee and nuthatch. Then worked down Bear canyon and over into Skunk Canyon where I shot a chickadee of the other species. Just south of town heard 3 more meadowlarks and saw 2 bluebirds and one robin. Lon crested jaws all along the route but magpies only in Skunk Canyon. Juncos only at mouth of Gregory and mouth of Skunk Canyon. Shot a nutcracker for his skeleton. Began to sprinkle just before reaching my room at the Y.M.C.A. at 6 p.m. Still raining hard when I went to bed after a dip in the swimming pool.

Boulder, Colo.
Sunday, June 6, 1909

Went to church in forenoon. Dined with rev. Pulliam, then hurried to University and marched in the academic procession to the Presbyterian Church and heard the Baccalaureate Sermon.

Monday, June 7, 1909

Very rainy day. Finished my work at museum for the semester. Saw 2 nighthawks.

Tuesday June 8, 1909

Clouds low in morning, but soon lifted. Got meals at the Boulderado. Took representative Chas. Hayden, a member of the advisory board, to dinner with me. In evening I went to the campus illumination etc.

Wednesday, June 9, 1909

Clear early in morning. Soon clouded. Academic procession started at 10 a.m. Took cars to Chatauqua. Terrific rain and hail just as we reached the grounds, continuing for some time , then with milder force nearly all through commencement exercises. Dined at Home Lunch Counter at 2 p.m., Packed trunk and left for Denver on 4:40 train, sprinkling again as I left. The foregoing 4 days record written on train just after leaving. Too busy to write it in large diary this week. The fields and prairies are beautifully green.
Birds seen: Doves, meadowlarks, redwings, lark buntings, kingbirds. Barn swallows, Boulder Creek, Clear Creek and Platte River high. Hailed as we reached Denver, got wet going to U.P. ticket office and found it locked. Returned to depot and found my sleeper ticket there. Felger (?) came into car and we had a brief talk. Left Denver for Los Angeles at 7:05 p.m., got dinner in diner. Went to bed early. Reached Cheyenne at 10:40.

Cheyenne, Wyo., Thursday
June 10, 1909

Still at Cheyenne, held up on account of floods. Cold and partly cloudy. Cheyenne paper reports 64 as maximum temperature, 45 minimum. Clear part of day. Left Cheyenne at 2 p.m., crossed Trias and Carboniferous at 2:45 and entered granite. Formations very irregular in strike and dip but mostly strike E-W and dip possibly northerly. Passed through long tunnel at 3:30 and 7 minutes later cut red sandstones again. On Laramie plains at 3:45, broad and flat, stratified rocks (Carboniferous?) to north, plain buried beneath debris mantle and rising abruptly from plains to south are mountains apparently of granite. Reached Laramie at 4 p.m.

Ogden, Utah. June 11, 1909

Woke up at Ogden at 5 a.m., bright, but cool, soon warming up. Mts. Bordering valley with much snow, especially at Salt Lake. Went into diner just after leaving Salt Lake. Immediately after breakfast the engine broke down , causing another delay. At Tintic there are many mines – most important camp in Utah. Beyond great scrub cedar forests. SW of Lynn sagebrush desert, with no grass.

Barstow, Cali., June 12, 1909

Awoke at 5:30 here, bright and quite warm. Tree yuccas here, but soon left behind, as also large “soapweed”. Reached Los Angeles at 11 a.m. 15 hours behind. Nellie, Henry, Alice, Ina and Cousin Mamie met me at depot and Nellie Ina and I went to the house for lunch. Spent afternoon at house. At 7 p.m. The Kittle’s (sic) called for a few moments. At 8 p.m. we all went to Henry’s and spent the evening with music.

Los Angeles, Cali., June 13, 1909

Kittle called with the auto and took Nellie, Frank and I for a ride to Hollywood. At 4:30 Nellie and I took the “Salt Lake” train for Long beach, where uncle George and Dr. A. L. Bryant met us at the train. After lunch we all walked down on the wharf. Cloudy forenoon, sunny afternoon.

Long Beach, Cali., June 14, 1909

Cloudy morning. I spent most of the forenoon packing 1800 shells and sea urchins Nellie had collected . In the afternoon Nellie and I walked west up the beach beyond Seaside where we collected some 700 shells, mostly of Cerithiidae ? They were in the sand which had been dumped out by the dredger and which formed the dyke along the channel.

Long Beach, Cali., June 15, 1909

Cloudy morning. Arose at 6:30 and packed the shells collected yesterday. Left Long Beach on Salt Lake car with cousin Fannie Coad and husband at 9:34 for Catalina, fare $5.00. Very calm, warm, only partly cloudy. Put up at Delmar, got a very poor dinner at the Klondike Restaurant, then went to Seal Rocks in the glass bottomed boat Hermosa. In the evening walked to a bay north of Avalon. Supped at Arlington Café. Very good.

Avalon, Cali., June 16, 1909

Clear, calm and hot. I arose at 6:30 breakfasted and started SE along beach. Found rocks covered with limpets of several species, Littorina and Chlorostoma. In an hour or so Nellie and Fannie joined me. We walked to Pebble Beach (the town dump) and found there a few cone shells etc. on the shingle. Have seen no sandy beaches on the island yet and few pebbly ones. Sea cliff usually precipitous, porphyry and other igneous or intrusive rocks. Near Seal Rocks it looked like a coarse conglomerate in places as seen from the boat. Returned to Avalon at 2:45 and left on the Hermosa at 3:15, reaching Long Beach at 6:15. Spent evening cleaning snails and spreading their opercula to dry. Collected 497 specimens of limpet spp., Littorina sp., Chlorostoma sp., and other mollusca, but only two land snails. Island very dry.

Long Beach, Cali. June 17/09

Spent forenoon finishing the preparation of the snails. In afternoon Nellie and I were on the beach most of the time. I left for Los Angeles at 4:50p.m. In evening, Lu, Allie, Ina and I called on Henry and Louise and told her goodbye, as she leaves for the east tomorrow. Frank went to Long Beach, so I have missed him. He returned on late car.

Los Angeles, Cali.
June 18, 1909

Kittle and I went to Glendale in the auto. Called on Dr. Al. Bryant and Mrs. Goss, Goss being away. I left Los Angeles for Long Beach on 2:30 p.m. car. Rained last night, cloudy this forenoon, clear this afternoon. In afternoon Nellie and I walked a long ways east on Long Beach and collected about 150 or 200 specimens of shells.

Long Beach, Cali.
June 19, 1909

Bright, clear and warm. At 10:30 I started for Los Angeles on electric car. Went to City Hall and found Frank, where Kittle and Melvin joined us. Frank went to the City Club dinner, and the rest of us to a cafeteria, then at 1:30 we all started for Portuguese Bend, above Point Firman in Kittle’s auto. Left auto on bluffs and went down to beach, collected crabs, limpets etc. Then got supper and made our beds, turning in at 9 p.m.

Portuguese Bend, Cali.
June 20, 1909

I arose at 5:30 and started for the beach, where the others joined me at 8:30. Got some fine material. Found Keyhole Limpets (volcano) and large chitons, and black abalones by turning rocks, other species (snails and bivalves) on upper surfaces of rocks. Collected a few fish also and a lizard. Fleas were very bad last night and prevented sleep. We found they were swarming along the bluffs where sheep or goats had been grazing, so we packed up and came back to Los Angeles, starting about 11:30. Has been bright and warm all day. Frank and I spent the evening at Henry’s, then returned to his house. Collected over 500 specimens yesterday and today. Keyhole limpets (volcano) only found under rocks, others under and over. Black abalones under and in crevices.

Los Angeles, Cali., June 21, 1909

Dense fog at 6 a.m., but cleared early. I left for Long beach at 10:40 but did not arrive until 11 a.m. on account of trouble with the motor. Stayed in house most of afternoon. Developed negatives in evening.

Long Beach, Cali., June 22/09

Cloudy forenoon and moist. Saw several large slugs on sidewalk. Walked beyond Seaside and collected a lot of shells etc., 67 specimens. In afternoon Nellie and I went to east San Pedro and collected 869 shells on the SW end of Terminal Island, possibly the residuum of erosion of Pleistocene beds, though the perfect condition of the most fragile Pectens and Crucibulum are against that idea. Clear afternoon. Total collections to date 4583.

Long Beach, Cali., June 23, 1909

Cloudy morning, nearly clear by noon. Stayed in house most of forenoon. Nellie and I went to theater and saw “Winchester” in the afternoon.

Long Beach, Cali., June 24/09

Cloudy, misty morning. Nellie and I took the Seaside car at 9:50, then walked to East San Pedro, returning on 5:45 “Salt Lake” train. Clear afternoon. Collected 1607 specimens, making a total of 5650 to date.

Long Beach Cali., June 25, 1909

Moist, cloudy morning. We packed yesterday’s collections and swept the house in the forenoon. Clear at noon as usual.

Long Beach, Cali., June 26, 1909

Cloudy morning, cleared before noon. I went to Los Angeles on 10:10 a.m. car. Went to City hall and met Frank. We went to City Club and from there to Pacific Electric Station, where we started on City Club San Pedro excursion at 1:10, about 250 men in five cars. At San Pedro the conductor announced that he could not get the power to run to Point Firman, which of course the company knew before the excursion started. So we boarded six boats and ran first through the outer harbor, then through the inner harbor to the Craig shipyards at Seaside, where we went through the plant. The channels of the inner harbor reminded me of the tide flats about La Conner on Puget Sound, at high tide. At Seaside we boarded electric cars and went to Long Beach, where we dined at the Virginia then listened to talks on San Pedro harbor by Capt. Freis, the engineer in charge of the government, and others. The ran to Los Angeles which we reached at 11 p.m. I went home with Henry for the night. My fleabites were badly inflamed so I bathed them in a saturated solution of baking soda, which allayed the itching.

Long Beach, June 27, 1909

Clear morning and warm. Henry and I went to Frank’s for breakfast, then I went to Kittles, where Nellie arrived last night. We all went in the auto to a cafeteria for dinner, then rode to Eastlake Park and on to Huntington road, then Nellie and I came back to Long beach on 4 oclock car.

Long Beach, June 28, 1909

Cloudy morning, cleared soon and hot afternoon. Nellie and I went down to Naples Bay, where we found some fine Bulla gouldiana, abundant Cerithidea and Melampus? Took car to and from Mira Mar, just above head of Naples canal. Got 195 specimens (including 38 Bulla) besides 15 specimens I got this morning. Total collections to date 5860.

Long Beach, Cali., June 29/09

Bright, hot day. Surf very high. In afternoon I went through the reclaimed tidelands north of Seaside. Cerithidea in enormous numbers as far as the tides reach. Melampus olivaceus snails nearer coast Mud pumped out by dredger contained many Tagelus, Chione, Ostrea etc. and a few pectens. In evening Nellie and I attended Bide a wyle theater – performance very poor.

Long Beach Cali., June 30/09

Hot and bright. I rode to Mira Mar on the Naples car and took photos E and W along the coast from the point. Then took 14th st. car and went to Salt Marsh N of Seaside where I took 2 photos of Cerithidea and collected 2 tern eggs. Collected a few shells.

Long Beach Cali., July 1, 1909

A hot morning, cloudy and cooler in afternoon. I went to Los Cerritos and collected 610 Pleistocene fossils, returning at 3 p.m. At 4 p.m. Nellie and I went to Los Angeles , met Francis at the Santa Fe train. Dined at Boos Cafeteria opposite Pacific Electric Station. Then Nellie and Francis went to Long Beach and I went to Franks, where I found Zoë Dobson and her children and Gertrude Thompson.

Los Angeles, Cali., July 2, 2909

Bright, hot morning. I called on Ralph Arnold at H. W. Hellman Bldg. Got dinner at Boos cafeteria, met Nellie at Pacific Electric Station and at 1:45 we left for Santa Barbara on Southern Pacific R.R., where Kittle met us with the auto. It has been a terribly hot day, but cool at Santa Barbara. In evening we went to band concert.

Santa Barbara, Cali.
July 3, 1909
Harl, Carl, Melonie and I went into Mission Canyon before breakfast. Then we went to the beach. In afternoon went to the beach again and collected limpets, etc. Bright and hot in the sun where sheltered from the wind, but wind cool. Found three species of limpets alive, and Littorina, one turban shell and one chiton and one coffee bean shell. Many dead specimens of Conus, Olivella, Chama and mussels. Small mussels alive, also the peculiar non sessile barnacle like animal which we first found at Portuguese Bend. Total collections to date 6485 + 80 = 6565.

Santa Barbara, Cali.
July 5, 1909

Bright morning but cool breeze. Harl took the women and small children in the auto and Carl Strock, Melvin and I walked the beach a mile or so SE of the lighthouse, returning at 6:30 p.m. Collected about 130 shells. Total collections to date 6695

Santa Barbara, Cali., July 6, 1909

Bright, warm morning. Harl and I explored the bluffs at the bath house and collected about 400 small Pleistocene fossils, mostly gastropods and fragments of Bryozoa. The formation dips westerly or southwesterly. On top of the next point west we found kitchen middens containing clam and mussel shells. I afternoon collected about 300 Pliocene at S end and on E face of Packard Hill. The S end is a mass of small Bryozoa stems, with a few small pectens and other shells. Then Harl and wife and Nellie and I went in to the swimming pool. In evening we dined at Stocks, then they came to Kittle’s and spent evening. I swam more than I have for years. Total collections to date 7395.

Santa Barbara, Cali.,
July 7, 1909

Bright, warm morning. We left Santa Barbara on the S. P. Ry. At 10:30 a.m., reached Los Angeles 2:30 p.m. Went out to Frank’s house, then took 5:20 electric car for Long Beach. Wrote a lot of letters in evening.

Long Beach, Cali., July 8/09

Foggy morning, clearing up by 10:30. Nellie and I took 9:30 train to East San Pedro on Salt Lake Road. There we rented a boat from Paul La Marr’s boathouse and rowed to Deadman’s Island. Collected limpets, marine snails of several species, one Bulla etc. on beach then collected fossils on east end of island. West end shows Miocene? conglomerate at base. Found no fossils. Above is a sandstone, probably lower San Pedro Pleistocene, with few fossils, of which we collected none. Above this is the upper San Pedro with several horizons filled with fine fossils. We collected several thousand. They were weathered out so that we could obtain fine specimens with but little work, especially under on((e)) ledge. A the top of the bluffs is black, soil about 2 feet in depth, containing kitchen middens, chiefly Pecten aequicoststa. Returned to Long Beach on the 5:45 train.

Long Beach, Cali., June 9,1909

Cloudy morning. Arose at 5:30 and Nellie, Dr. Carter and I left on 7:05 a.m. train for Pomona (Salt Lake Route). Reached Los Angeles at 8 a.m., left there at 8:35. reached Pomona at9:35 and were met at depot by John A Kennedy and taken to his home at 720 N Garey St. In Afternoon we all went out in a neighborhood auto.

Pomona, Cali., July 10, 1909

Cloudy morning, soon clearing. Nellie, Dr. carter and I went for a drive with Mr. Kennedy. Went through packing house and saw them packing oranges, and through the Cannery and saw them canning and drying apricots. Then Dr. carter went to Mr. Hall’s. At 1:18 we took Southern Pacific train for Ontario, Lu and Frank being on board. Harry Jones met us there and drove us to Maud Harris’ home 18 mi. E of Ontario and 7 mi. N of Corona.

Ranch W of Ontario. Cali., July 11, 1909

Very dense fog at 6 a.m., nearly clear at 9 a.m. Collected Planorbis trivolvis, P. parvus, Physa sp. Lymnaea bulimnoides ? and Pisidium in pond at artesian well. The Lymnaea was found mostly in the mud outside the little streamlet which runs through the slough. Harris and Maud brought Frank, Nellie, Laton and I to Ontario for the 5:40 train and Nellie and I reached Long Beach at 9 p.m., going out on the electric from Los Angeles.

Long Beach, Cali., July 12, 1909

Foggy morning, clearing early. Spent the day in packing 5 boxes of recent and fossil shells.

Long Beach, Cali., July 13/09

Foggy morning. Most common birds at Long beach are mocking bird and Brewer blackbird. Least ? tern common in mud flats. In harbor are ring billed gulls and an occasional pelican. At Portuguese bend saw California quail and road runners and burrowing owl and saw former at Santa Barbara. In Ontario the following:
Western mockingbird abundant
Ark. flycatcher abundant
Cassin flycatcher few
Burrowing owl abundant
California shrike common
Brewer blackbird abundant
Black phoebe one
House finch common
Buzzard common
Killdeer common
Dove Common
Meadowlark abundant
Cliff swallow abundant

Collected 3443 specimens at Deadman Isl. And Ontario. Total to date 10, 838

Shipped six boxes early in afternoon to Boulder, by Salt lake and Union Pacific, paying $7.50 freight. Later in afternoon Nellie and I went east on beach and collected 470 fossils from base of cliff and also from half way to top. The Tagelus all came from upper horizon, also collected 10 recent shells. Total collections to date 11,318.

Long Beach, Cali., July 14, 1909

Cloudy morning, as usual, Clear before noon. Packed my trunk in forenoon. Went to beach to see Elk national Convention crowd in afternoon.

Long Beach, Cali., July 15, 1909

Cloudy morning. Nellie and I came to Los Angeles on the 10:30 a.m. electric, sending my trunk on the Salt Lake. At L.A. we stood on a box and saw part of the Elk’s parade, got lunch at small restaurant opposite Pacific Electric Station, then I went to Salt Lake Station and from there to Frank’s house. In evening, we all went to Frank’s office in City Hall and saw electric parade of floats on street car tracks. Hot afternoon, cool evening.

Los Angeles, Cali., July 16, 1909

I stayed at Franks house until late afternoon, then Frank and I went to redondo and tried new bath house, returning at 7 p.m.Nellie went with Ina to see parade, and Maud Harris and husband and her mother came back with them. Cloudy morning and evening, bright afternoon.

Los Angeles, Cali., July 17, 1909

Cloudy morning, clear but hazy at 8 a.m. I called on Louise Thompson Lampshire at here (sic) store on Pico St., then went with her to her home to see her daughter margaret. Afterwards visited Chamber of Commerce builing. Reached house at 12:15. In evening, Nellie, Lucy and I went to Henry’s.

Los Angeles, Cali., July 18, 1909

Very bright, warm morning, but cool breeze soon sprang up. Frank, Henry, Lucy, Nellie and I went toGlendale on the 10:30 car, dined at Dr. A. L. Bryant’s and I spent afternoon looking over R. D. Goss’ shell collection. Henry and Frank returned early the rest of us leaving there about 6:30 p.m.

Los Angeles, Cali., Monday
July 19, 1909

Usual fog this morning. Left Los Angeles on Salt Lake Road at 10 a.m., still hazy. Not as warm as I expected in forenoon, but afternoon very bright and hot on desert. T 96+ at 6 p.m.

July 20, 1909

Bright morning. For the first time I shaved while train was in motion and with not trouble or cuts. Cool breeze all day. Fine stream and marshes for mallusks etc. , just east of Evans. Does not look good for fossils. Red predominates in rocks from Salt Lake to Evans and further. The tunnel 50 minutes from Evans (east) occupied 4 ½ minutes at fair speed. Bluffs, probably Tertiary, appeared on both sides before reaching Granger, bounding (sic) the broad shallow valley of a stream. At Green River the lower part of bluffs very light colored, darker above and nearly red at top.

Cheyenne, Wyo. Wednesday
July 21, 1909

Bright morning. Left Cheyenne at 8;35 a.m. Quite warm at noon. Reached Denver at 11:35. Felger (?) met me at Depot and we talked over our coming trip as we visited D and R. G. offices. I left for Boulder on 12:30 train. Had Yates take me and my baggage to the museum, where I unpacked my trunk and examine my mail. Then went to Boulderado Hotel, took a bath and dined. Fine rain at 6 p.m. Everything here is green and beautiful. I am told that rain has been abundant.

Boulder, Colo, July 22, 1909

Quite warm today. I have written a large number of letters, finished packing and shipping our goods to Newcastle, Colo., for our trip. Terry Duce called in evening to talk over trip.

Boulder, Colo., July 23, 1909

Cooler. At 1 p.m. there was a terrific thunderstorm. Two or three people drowned and others injured in flood in Two Mile canyon. Terry Duce called in evening for final instructions.

Boulder, Colo., July 24, 1909

Hot morning, partly cloudy, remaining so through the day. Finished reading Enos a Mills’ “Wild Life on the Rockies” Went to denver on 6;30 p.m. interurban, riding in seat with henry Drumm. Went to Albany Hoteland got a room and retired early.

Denver, Colo., July 25, 1909

Arose at 6 a.m. Found W. W. Robbins and mother on 17th St. and took them to breakfast at home dairy. Then went to Union Depot and arranged for transfer of Mrs. Robbins baggage, walked to Moffat Depot and took 8 a.m. train, which was crowded. Bright but comfortable morning. Reached Tolland at 10:15. Dr. Ramaley and I went down gulch a short distance from the mountain laboratory. Tolland is 8889 ft. above sea level in a fine mountain valley, modified by glacial action. Moraine consists chiefly of granite and gneiss, and have been cut through by South Boulder Creek. Down creek in forenoon we saw white crowned sparrows, Lincoln sparrows and Brewer blackbirds, besides a small bird which looked much like a chipping sparrow. In afternoon, Robbins, Prosser and I went up stream and collected several species of snails under aspens. In evening I identified and labelled the birds collected by Robbins.

Tolland, Col.,July 26, 1909

Bright, hot morning, cooler and partly cloudy toward 10 a.m. Arose at 6 a.m. and went down gulch to Rollinsville with Ramaley, eating fruit and crackers along the way. The moraines end where the gulch narrows below Tolland. White crowned sparrows, hummingbirds and magpies common. A few chickadees. One grayheaded junco at Rollinsville Station. A few barn swallows and numbers of Brewer blackbirds. At 2 p.m. I lectured at the mountain laboratory on “birds and their relation to man” and at 7 p.m. on “the large mammals of the United States”. In latter part of afternoon I helped Rollins pack the collections. Rained hard from 3 to 4 p.m.

Tolland, Colo., July 27, 1909

Bright, cool, windy morning, heavy bank of clouds to the west over the range, soon breaking up. Spent most of forenoon packing up, but collected leeches, Crustacea and water beetles for half an hour in the lake north of the laboratory. At 2 p.m. lectured at laboratory on birds, including a general account of Colorado birds. At 4:30 Robbins and I went down valley a short distance. At 5:30 there were 15 night hawks hovering over the meadow. At 6 p.m. saw none. Barn swallows abundant, violet green less so. At 7 p.m. I lectured at the laboratory on “Glaciers of Colorado, existing and extinct”.

Tolland, Colo., July 28, 1909

Bright, fresh, breezy morning. Started for Jenny Lake at 10:15. Robbins and I and Mr. And Mrs. Pennoc and Miss Wollman. Came down gulch on foot. In pond at 10,500 ft collected Pisidia and water beetles. On way back saw 3 hermit thrushes, one young. At Newcomb, 9300 ft., saw 2 red shafted flicker and a western robin. At railroad bridge saw a night hawk at 4:30 flying very high. The country traversed today is heavily glaciated. The Forest lake and the two above it and many others occur in a valley heading in a glacial cirque. Some are rock basins, others morainal. There are rock ridges cutting across the gulch, as at North Boulder and Camp Albion gulches. That gulch leads into another, which in twin leads into South Boulder Creek (see map in paper by Ramaley or Robbins). Glaciation extends down South Boulder to a mile or so below Tolland. Below that we saw no plain evidence of it. Up creek a gulch coming in from the south looks even more heavily glaciated. Perhaps this is because the topography is not so much affected by post-glacial erosion. The bird fauna as I have noticed it of this region is as follows:
Red shafted flicker
Brewer blackbird
Red naped sapsucker
Barn swallow
Violet green swallow
Night hawk
Red wing blackbird
White crown sparrow
Killdeer (Robbins)
Golden crowned kinglet
Pine grosbeak (higher up)
Audubon hermit thrush (higher up)
Chipping sparrow ?
Broadwing hummingbird
Gray headed junco- Rollinsville to timberline
Mt. Bluebird
Red headed woodpecker (one specimen)
Western meadowlark
Long crested jay
Clarke crow (Robbins)
Rocky Mt. Jay (specimen thrown away)
Yellow warbler (Robbins)
Robin to timberline

The robins I have seen are the western but a specimen taken by Robbins has the white tips of outer tail feather very distinct.
In catching the large (1/2 inch long) water beetles today I noticed that I could not catch them at all by grabbing at them as they rested on the surface of the water, but never failed when I dipped my hand quickly but quietly beneath them and scooped them up. Very few clouds through the day, rather warm , sprinkled a little in evening.

Tolland, Colo., July 29, 1909

Warm morning, but partly cloudy. Rained hard during night. At 8:45 Robbins and I started west on the partly completed state road to Apex, which climbs the south side of South Boulder canyon. Fine view of Boulder Park. The park is a partly filled and partly drained morainal lake, the moraine being just east of the railroad station a few hundred rods, the remnant of the lake being north of the station. A strip of considerable width through the park has been reworked by South Boulder Creek since the glacier retreated. The terrace is sharply outlined on each side of the present course of the stream, and numerous small lagoons mark the cut-off oxbow loops. The present stream shows a beautiful system of meanders. Along the road a short distance from the village are several deposits of slide rock separated from the main ridge by a shallow depression. They lie on a steep slope and are apparently the result of rock sliding over a post glacial snow and ice bank for years and stopping at the foot of the ice or snow. The moraine here extends up the slopes several hundred feet. There appears to be a roche moutonee within South Boulder canyon. At mouth of Mammoth Gulch the moraine is very deep, perhaps 200 or 300 ft. On each side there is a hummocky lateral moraine. Two long, parallel, narrow ridges extend up gulch for a mile. Between them flows the creek. E of the E ridge is a wet valley in which but little water now flows. To the W of the W ridge is the Teller Lake and its valley. Perhaps the two stream valleys were subglacial stream beds and continued to flow from the end of the retreating glacier. Certainly there must have been considerable post glacial erosion, as the grade of the gulch is steep and the present stream is swift. The whole wide valley is a beautiful example of glacial topography. The glacier headed on E side of James Peak. Teller Lake is morainal, and is very near the mouth of the gulch. At present South Boulder is the main stream and Mammoth is a tributary. Came down E valley on way back, and followed railroad through cuts which expose gneiss ridges extending out diagonally into the South Boulder valley, apparently the result of fluting by the glacier as in the upper North Boulder canyon. A rough diagram is as follows: ((Drawing in field book)). Rained hard at 1 p.m. and continued fitfully through afternoon.

Tolland, Colo., July 30, 1909

Fine, bright morning, cold at first but soon warming. Had early breakfast. Miss Kirkton left on 7:05 train for her home in Canyon (sic) City. After breakfast we finished packing everything which is to be shipped from the laboratory and got outfit to the train by 11:30. Very tired. Miss Bruderlin, Robbins and mother, Miss McKenzie and I left Tolland on 3:56 train for Denver. Reached denver at 6 p.m. Felger met us at Moffat depot and helped with baggage to Union depot where we checked it. The others went to Boulder and I went with Felger to spend the night at his home.

Denver, Colo., July 31, 1909

Bright, warm morning. Felger and I left denver on D & R.G. at 8 a.m. Cloudy with cool breeze most of day. Reached Newcastle at 11:30 p.m. and went to Albany Hotel.
Newcastle, Colo., Aug 1, 1909

Bright, warm morning. Up at 6:30 and found Terry Duce at hotel. ((J. Terry Duce later became a famous oil geologist. He was sent to all parts of the world and while there often collected specimens for us. We have many butterflies from South America that he collected and sent here.)) After breakfast, Felger, Terry and I walked up Elk Creek half a mile to the camp of the U. S. Geol. Survey party which is engaged in coal land work under Albert E. Beekley. At W edge of town the end of the Great Hogback has strata dipping about S by W. After noon we circled the big hill north of town, Felger soon turning back. Terry and I going across the valley to the lower Mancos lying along the bluffs. We found dead Oreohelix haydeni gobbiana sprinkling the slopes wherever we went, following up to the top of the mesa we found them alive under mountain mahogany, but not elsewhere. The strata dip approximately S and the angle is 35˚ or 40˚. At top of mesa is a conglomerate composed of boulders up to 18 inches diameter of red sandstone well cemented. Then we followed along the limestone and calcareous shales resembling the Niobrara of Owl Canyon region, and found Inoceramus deformis and Ostrea congesta. Proceeding up to the pond on Elk Creek above the U. S. G. S. camp and collected Crustacea, beetles, etc. and then found Oreohelix cooperi ? under Populus logs and Pyramidula cockerelli. Then visited camp and met Beekley. He said the sandstone forming S face of hill N of town and NE face of hill W of town is base of Mesa Verde formation. ((Two drawings in note book, one a sketch map of the Newcastle area and one a cross section))
Mancos = Benton, Niobrara and lower Pierre
Mesa Verde = upper Pierre and Fox Hills
The lower Mancos shows black shales overlaid by limestone like Benton and Niobrara, the limestone containing Inoceramus deformis and Ostrea congesta. Went to M. E. church in evening. W. W. Robbins arrived on the 11:15 train. Sprinkled most of afternoon and until midnight.

Newcastle, Colo., Aug 2, 1909

Bright, hot morning. Robbins and I arose at 6 a.m., got breakfast, got our freight and baggage to liver stable and I unpacked it while Robbins went collecting plants. In afternoon Felger, Robbins, Terry and I followed S side of Grand River down to first gulch – Alkali Gulch – Robbins for plants, Felger for birds, Terry and I for fossils. The Mesa Verde formation is mostly sandstone, partly massive with some shales or very fine, rather friable sandstones. In Alkali Gulch, just above a coal vein on the east side, we found many leaves like the Laramie material, in sandstone. This coal vein seems to continue westward to the Keystone Coal Mine. It has been worked on W side of Alkali Gulch and again on SE side of river opposite Keystone Mine. Up Alkali Gulch we found a stratum of sandstone strongly impregnated with iron oxide, containing many leaves, and collected a bag full, including fragments of palm leaves. Returned at 4:30. It has been very hot. Nelson from the U.S.G.S camp says magnetic declination here is 15˚35’ E.

Newcastle, Colo., Aug 3, 1909

Bright, cool morning. Had a splendid night’s sleep. Got a 3-inch covered wagon and team from Hugh Miller and spent forenoon packing and loading the wagon. Left Newcastle at 1;30 p.m. Drove up Elk Creek to the forks, then a short distance up main fork (west fork) and photographed the conglomerate unconformably overlying upturned edges of Mancos, looking south, and the lower Mancos (= Niobrara l.s.) looking west. The N side of gulch has the Niobrara l.s. and Benton shale on basal slope of gulch wall, backed by what resembles Dakota sandstone. Back of this are variegated shales, with probable l.s. like Morrison, all underlaid by red beds as east of the range. Far north is a different formation. Niobrara where we photographed it has 70˚ dip SW, strike NW, overlaid by “paper” shales as at Six Mile N of Boulder. The conglomerate over the edges of these formations contains granite, gneiss and red and white s.s. boulders up to 18 inch diameter, quite hard. Mancos shales extend up on slope of south wall, capped by Mesa Verde. At top of Benton in one place I found a shaly sandstone containing plant stems as north of Boulder. Where Elk Creek breaks through the “Dakota” we left it and kept on west by north. Here the Dakota extends to base of slope of canyon wall. On south wall of canyon, in Mesa Verde formation, coal is burning or has burnt for (sic) Newcastle at least four miles up Elk Creek. We camped a short distance NE of Rifle Gap, at 7:30 p.m., got to bed a little after ten.

Rifle Gap, Aug 4, 1909

Arose at 6:30. After breakfast Terry and I started down into the Gap on the SE side of creek. Between the first well defined sandstone ledge and the second we found Cardium speciosum, Mactra, Ostrea, Anchura, Lunatia and other gastropods in float rock. Immediately above the second ledge we found a fossiliferous stratum 2 or 3 ft. in thickness, dipping S angle 73˚, containing Anomia raetiformis, Corbicula, Ostrea, with no Cardium or gastropods. The first s.s. does not make a ridge on the W side of the gap. Above the next s.s. is a coal vein which has been worked somewhat on both sides of gap. This is overlaid by clay shales, then sandy shales. About 100 ft. above this is a series of burned s.s. and clays which I estimated to be 200 ft. thick, probably metamorphosed by burning of coal veins. This is overlaid by a massive s.s. like the Laramie, which in turn is overlaid by alternating s.s. etc. as below. I notice two more coal openings above this on W side of gap, the uppermost but little below the upper ridge making sandstone ledge. All along the sandy slope we found dead Oreohelix cooperi, but saw no live ones, though, for that matter, I did not look for them. Took one picture looking at the W side of the gap, down stream, another of the lower Mesa Verde on the W side from the E side. Another of the upper fossil outcrop on E side. Reached camp at 1:30 p.m.. Very hot forenoon. Afternoon I cleaned the Oreohelix from Newcastle and found both species to contain young. Then at 4 p.m. Terry and I visited the very steep slope showing upper Mancos shales and lower Mesa Verde sandstones. I the lower Mesa Verde we found a thick stratum (about 8 inches) filled with fossils, including Baculites, Bryozoa, Serpula markmani, Anchura, et al., but no Cardium, Mactra, Callista or Ostrea. The three faunas we have found here are very distinct. In this last horizon we also found 2 specimens of Halymenites major and many plant stems, probably marine. Reached camp at 6:30, retired at 9:30

Rifle Gap, Aug 5, 1909

Hot bright morning. Up at 6:30, broke camp and started for Pieance (sic) Creek at 8:30. Put on the odometer after travelling one mile by mile post. Saw meadowlarks, mourning doves, many piñon jays, long crested jays, Arkansas flycatchers, one Louisiana tanager, rock wren. As we passed out of the gap we found sandstones etc, dipping to the S or SW about 10˚. These I take for Wasatch. Between these and the Mesa Verde sandstones are varicolored marls which surely are Wasatch. I believe that the entire series from the upper Mesa Verde sandstones to the top of the Book Cliffs is probably referable to Wasatch. At one point on Government Creek there appeared to be an unconformity, sandstones resting apparently unconformably on the varicolored. However it seems to be in the axis of a fold and may be faulted. The Gov. Cr. Gulch, instead of approximately following the Mesa Verde – Wasatch contact, slowly passes into the latter. We reached Rio Blanco Stage Station, ¾ mil from Rio Blanco P.O. ((on)) Piceance Creek, 20 miles N of Rifle, in Rio Blanco Co. at 5:15 p.m. and camped, having stopped for an hour shortly after noon to feed the horses., where there was little water for them. Water at Rifle Gap was very poor, creek water being used from the creek by the ranchers and being affected by irrigation. At Piceance Creek it was a little better but alkaline.

Rio Blanco, Colo., Aug 6, 1909

It began raining before daylight and still continues. About 10 a.m., after carrying a lot of wood half a mile for camp use, Terry and I started up creek through the gap ((gap on Piceance Creek, circa ½ mile E of Rio Blanco P.O.)). At its mouth is a coarse conglomerate which is likely the base of the Tertiary. Below it lies the usual series of Mesa Verde sandstones, clays and coal. The walking through wet weeds and mud was hard, so we did not do much climbing and found no fossils except one Halymenites major, which Terry found at the base of the Mesa Verde. Dips vary somewhat, owing to folds, but in general are westerly, from Rifle Gap northward. ((This is the west side of the “Grand Hogback”, one of the major physiographic features of NW Colorado)) In the gap here above Rio Blanco is a small reservoir, where we collected one leech, a lot of small Physa and water bugs. Under logs we got Zonitoides ? and Euconulus trochiformis. Dead Oreohelix cooperi were somewhat common about the scrub oaks. I found two live ones clinging to the upper surface of rocks beneath oaks. Red wing blackbirds and bluebirds are common here. Also a large ground squirrel. We returned to camp about 1:30, wet and tired. At 4 p.m. I started up creek again, rain having ceased. Found Oreohelix cooperi very abundant under aspens, etc, crawling about in the moist atmosphere. Under one small alder I picked up 25 live ones. In the same place under aspen sticks I found Pyramidula, Zonitoides, Vallonia, Vitrina, Euconulus, Thysanophora, Pupilla, Vertigo and perhaps others and an Agriolimax further up. In creek I found one dead Lymnaea bulimnoides (perhaps variety) and a few dead valves of Pisidium which could not be saved. In the reservoir a mile up creek I got Physa sp. The Oreohelix were on slopes of Mesa Verde sandstone, as well as the other land snails. Rained again while I was out. This noon the wind was east. Now it is south and it looks more threatening than ever, so we have ditched about the tent.

Rio Blanco, Colo. Aug 7, 1909

Rained more toward morning. Broke camp at 8:30 and started north through Rio Blanco P.O. to Meeker, still cloudy. About 5 miles from camp we saw ravens and three eagles. It rained soon after noon. Reached Meeker at about 5 p.m., and camped in a vacant lot in east part of town. We may get put off by the owner, but hope not. Clear and warm the latter part of afternoon. Bluebirds common here. Saw a few Say phoebes. On road Brewer sparrows and lark sparrows were abundant Doves numerous here, not so on the road. Saw two more eagles just as we reached the White River. This river is very muddy, and about 40 to 100 ft. wide now. Good water in town waterworks but somewhat alkaline. We passed back from the Wasatch formation to the Mesa Verde long before reaching White River.

Meeker, Colo., Aug 8, 1909

Rained hard during night. Bright, warm morning. Robbins and I started out at 9 a.m., going up to Flag Creek road to cross river to south side. The valley here occupies the upper Mancos formation, with Mesa Verde forming strong bluffs on North side. Dip approximately 15˚ NW. The Mesa Verde, as usual, is composed mainly of sandstones, with some shales. Several coal veins crop out along the bluffs, at least one of which is being worked. Where we reached the south side of the river a low bluff is composed of shaley sandstone like portions of the Pierre north of Boulder. The south boundary of the valley is not at all abrupt. Proceeding up valley we noted two distinct terraces on each side thus: ((drawing in field book)). Did not visit the higher one, but the lower is covered with a cap of boulders, as at Boulder. About 2 miles up the valley on south side the dip in the Mancos shales is a little east of south. There we found in abundance an Ostrea and numerous fragments of a large species of an Inoceramus which I cannot recognize. At that point the north slope was strewn with small Oreohelix (dead shells) and under Amelanchier alnifolia and Cercocarpus parvifolius (mt. mahogany) we found numbers of live ones, mostly under the former, only two or three under the latter. Collected a lot of them, thinking they may be new. Also found under a plank near a ditch a Succinea and several Agriolimax (small specimens). In the ditches and small overflow sloughs of the river Lymnaea palustris and a large Physa are abundant. Collected a few crustaceans in an irrigating ditch. Returned to camp at noon. It has been very hot walking. Had fried chicken and lemonade for dinner. In late afternoon I turned over a few logs in a pasture near camp and collected a few Euconulus, Pyramidula, Zonitoides and one Agriolimax. Vallonia not found abundantly on this trip yet, as in eastern foothills of Colorado. At 8 p.m. we had another hard rain, with strong east wind. A storm worked eastward to the south of us earlier in the evening and another worked toward us from the southwest. I believe this latter is the one that struck us but I am not sure.

Meeker, Colo., Aug. 9, 1909

Cloudy morning, and rather sultry. Robbins started out at 8 a.m. to collect plants. Terry went with him to look for fossils in the Mesa Verde sandstone bluffs north of town and I stayed in camp to wash dishes etc., as Felger wished to collect birds and mammals. About 9 a.m. W. A. Kyser (sic), who lives across the street from camp and teaches some nearby school, and J. L. Riland, editor of one of the Meeker papers and superintendent of schools, called and spent an hour. They are very pleasant gentlemen and the latter offered to supply me with specimens of vanadium, uranium etc from this region. Later Mr. Burnham, who lives 3 miles out of town, called and told us of a fossil locality on east slope of Cedar Ridge, about 4 miles east of town. After dinner Mr. Keyser hitched up his horse and took terry and me up there. The ridge is a dome fold ((Meeker Dome)), bringing the Dakota up and exposing it by the denudation of the overlying Mancos. In one place a gulch exposes Jurassic strata. To the east and west are Mancos shales. The basal Mancos on the east is composed of hard black shales, with a sandstone above containing numerous plant stems. In it I found several poorly preserved Inoceramus dissimilis and some unrecognizable Ostrea. Returned at 5:13 p.m. At about 2 p.m. it rained in camp, and sprinkled where we were, the rain coming from the southwest. Mr. Pratt, a guide, called at camp in late afternoon. Up the river I saw in addition to the usual birds, one Say phoebe, and 16 ravens in one flock. In camp, later, saw six nighthawks. Felger took a Lewis woodpecker. White tailed prairie dog common from the divide south of Piceance Creek to Meeker. Arkansas kingbird also common, but have seen few here. After supper Robbins and I went to barber shop and got baths, and I had my hair cut.

Meeker, Colo., Aug. 10, 1909

Rained again during night, but bright and warm this morning. At 8 a.m. I started to the bluffs north of town alone. Stopped at the Review office to see editor J. L. Riland. He gave me specimens of alleged brown and black gilsonite from Piceance Creek, 30 or 40 miles SW of Meeker, and uranium and vanadium impregnated sandstone from Coal Creek, 16 miles NE of Meeker. I noted two brick kilns starting west of the school house, a few hundred yards from the base of the bluffs. They are using surface clay, which is probably upper Mancos decomposed. Have made few bird notes because Felger is doing the bird work for the trip. I note the absence of house finches and lack of abundance of red wing blackbirds. Every where bluebirds (S. arctica) have been common. Piñon jays are abundant locally. A few magpies occasionally.
Went up the basal slope of the bluffs about half way from school house to the canyon west of it – northwest of school house. A little ways up the slope “float” appeared containing fossils. Followed it up nearly to first distinct sandstone. It comes from calcareous (?see) concretions in the transition beds from the Mancos to the Mesa Verde. I collected two bags full and returned to camp at 12:20. In afternoon Felger and Robbins went with me, and we got two more bags full. The lot includes Baculites ovatus, B. compressus?, Inoceramus barabini, I. sagensis, and others, Sphaeriola cordata, Placenticeras sp., Ostrea sp., Panopaea berthoudi (?), Goniomya americana, Thracia gracilis, Scaphites sp., Mytilus (?) sp., Avicula nebrascana (?), A. sp., Pecten sp., Cardium speciosum and several other species with which I am not familiar. Did not rain today, but threatened about noon. Perfectly clear at bedtime.

Meeker, Colo., Aug 11, 1909

Cloudy, soon clearing and hot. Mr. Kyser hitched up and took Terry and me down the river, where we met W. D. Blythe at his house. He had a fine Indian vessel found a few hundred yards east of his house at foot of cliff ((outline drawing of vessel in notebook)). Gave us a palm and some other leaves and showed us two horizons. The lower one, about 150 yards E of house, was clay next to (below) sandstone, contained leaves, and palm was from there. This is at least 300-400 feet above the other horizon. The next higher ridge is conglomerate, about 150 yds west, probably Wasatch. Going up gulch (north by east) we found, on east face of escarpment, Corbicula cleburni, Ostrea glabra, Melania etc. and a razor shell. Above this was larger Corbicula. This is 200 or 300 feet below the lower leaf horizon. Then we crossed to the south side, but did not find the fossil locality of which Gale wrote. On the hill south of the river and east of Meeker-Rifle stage road I found a small form of Oreohelix cooperi in abundance (dead shells) among scrub oaks, Amelanchier and mt. mahogany. Did not look for live ones. We collected 3 lizards during the day. Reached camp at 5 p.m. and packed a box of fossils for shipment.

Meeker, Colo., Aug 12, 1909

Bright hot morning Terry and I started north on foot about 8:30, Felger and Robbins going around through town with the wagons to leave the boxes which are to be shipped. Visited the low shaley sandstone ridge which starts NE of town and runs NE. It resembles portions of the Hygiene sandstone north of Boulder. It appears to be near the middle of the Mancos formation. Coming north we found the white tailed prairie dog, large ground squirrel and woodchucks abundant. Robins not very common. Say phoebe occasional. Camped just above ranch about 3 or 4 miles south of Axial P.O. about 6 p.m. Water bad. Collected woodchucks, prairie dogs and ground squirrels.

Axial, Colo., Aug. 13, 1909

Hot, bright morning. Terry and I walked down gulch to Axial P.O., 2 ¾ miles from camp. Road is about N-S. Axial is at base of Mesa Verde formation. There is a coal mine just below our camp on west side of gulch. At Axial P.O. dip 27˚ SW. The oak scrub covers north facing slopes, opposite slopes barren. No large trees about here. Then we went upstream above camp. Oreohelix cooperi (large form) abundant on slopes covered by scrub oaks and mt. mahogany. No Amelanchier (but found Amelanchier higher on slope). Only dead shells seen. Did not look for live ones. Three miles S of Axial found on E side of gulch a two foot ledge of black limestone composed almost entirely of Ostrea glabra and Anomia micronema. Opposite, on west side of gulch, found same stratum, half way up the hillside. Did not find Tulotoma thompsoni which Stanton said occur here, but the bluff where they likely occur has been badly washed by recent storms. Returned to camp at 2 p.m. Has been nearly clear and hot all day. After supper Felger and Robbins rode down to the postoffice on horseback, without saddles. Robins more common here. Saw the following today. Golden eagle, Swainson ? hawk, sparrow hawk, White throated swift ? (yesterday), rock wren common, house wren, Brewer blackbird, Meadowlark, mourning dove common, American goldfinch 2, robin common, Arkansas goldfinch, Arkansas flycatcher, cliff swallow. Evening quite cool.

Axial, Colo., Aug 14, 1909

Another bright, hot morning. Arose at 6:30. Robbins and I finished poisoning the prairie dog and spermophile skins taken the 12th. Broke camp at 11 a.m. and started to Meeker, Felger having sprained his wrist last night by a fall in mounting one of the horses bareback. Robbins shot at a badger a mile this side of camp but he got into his hole. A half mile north of the stage station which is just north of the divide at Nine Mile Draw Felger killed one. A mile north of camp we collected some fossil Corbicula. Where Felger killed the badger I collected Oreohelix cooperi, Vitrina alsakana, Vallonia sp. We lunched and fed horses at stage station at 2 p.m.. Started on at 2:45. Crossed the divide or pass from Spring Creek to Curtis Creek at 3:04. Just before crossing Felger killed a spotted spermophile. At reservoir about seven miles from Meeker, Felger killed a without the white tail, just where he killed the one on the 12th . We reached Meeker at 6:15, got supper of beefsteak, bread and butter and coffee, then skinned the Badger roughly. Not so cool as last night. Got to bed about 10:30 p.m.

Meeker Colo., Aug. 15, 1909

Got up late. Bright and hot until 3 p.m., then cooler and sprinkled. In forenoon we finished putting up badger skin In Afternoon Robbins worked on prairie dog and squirrel skins. We also aired all the bedding. For dinner we had beef pot roast, dumplings and brown potatoes. Pretty “swell” for camp life.

Meeker, Colo., Aug. 16, 1909

Sprinkled considerably during the night, but was unusually warm. Bright, hot morning. While Felger and Robbins finished putting up the mammal skins, I went up town and ordered supplies. In afternoon Robbins, Felger and I drove up town to the Review office with our specimens, got the boxes we had stored there before going to Axial, packed and shipped them. We sent one big box of mammals and birds, one of plants, and one of mollusks etc. by express and two boxes and a keg of fossils by freight, the stage company taking all to Rifle and shipping from there to Boulder. Then Felger and I sharpened axes, knives, scalpels etc. at a blacksmith shop. After that I called on Mr. Lytle ( pronounced Little), editor of the Herald, who is a member of the University Advisory Board and a former member of the legislature. Upon return to camp, I found Austin Russel and Miram Bone, of Boulder, in the tent. After supper we got most of the load repacked. It began sprinkling just before dark. It also rained when we were taking the stuff up town for shipment.

Meeker, Colo., Aug. 17, 1909

Sprinkled considerable during night. Cloudy morning, soon clearing. Started east at 9. a. m. on river road, crossing south end of dome where Dakota and Jurassic are exposed. The river debris on the terraces contains much sandstone, some granite and considerable igneous rock. Three miles east of town I collected Pisidium from a ditch by the roadside and half a mile further collected a very large water beetle, a small snake, and some tiny fish fry. About five miles from town we collected Lymnaea sp. in small ditches by the roadside. At the stone school house, where the river road turns south, we continued east for 2 or 3 miles, and camped on a small creek. A mere rivulet. At 2 p.m. after a hasty lunch we raised the tent, then Felger, Robbins and Terry started out after sage grouse, while I stayed behind to get camp ready for the night. I found small wood in abundance a short distance down the creek. It was sprinkling when the others started out and rained considerably during the afternoon. Creek rose rapidly from heavy rain up stream. We got water from an open well at a ranch house. At dusk the men returned with four sage grouse. Still partly cloudy at 9 p.m. Birds seen today, as far as I can recall: Meadowlark common, Golden eagle common(7), mt, bluebird abundant, young bobolink 2 ((? by PR, bobolinks rarely get west of Yuma County)), lark bunting 3, mourning dove common, English sparrow, Brewer blackbird, sparrow haw, barn swallow, solitary sandpiper, lark sparrow, vesper sparrow, Brewer sparrow, killdeer, ravens. Our camp is on Little beaver Creek, near John Quinton’s house.

Little Beaver Creek, Colo., Aug. 18, 1909

Partly cloudy morning, sprinkling at breakfast time, but hot during later forenoon. I skinned the worst shot of the sage grouse, a young chicken. At noon terry and I started south on foot. It began to sprinkle just after we started. At foot of S side of valley we found gully cutting black Mancos shale. Collected an Inoceramus deformis and a number of I. dissimilis (?). At top of low ridge and forming its slope is a sandstone containing many plant stems, apparently seaweeds, a few indeterminable Inoceramus and Ostrea. Beneath is are black shales again, so the sandstone forms an escarpment thus: ((drawing in field book)). I did not go to the higher ridge marked A, so am not certain of its character. On the ridge saw a poorwill. Flushed it several times. It rained most of the time on the ridge. At foot of ridge on way up we saw many dead snail shells, but none alive, on base of slope, where the black shales underlaid the surface. On the way back it was raining and live ones were crawling about by hundreds, under many kinds of bushes including sage brush, rabbit brush, scrub oak and a small sour apple. Apparently Oreohelix gabbiana and O. cooperi are mingled, the former predominating, if I am correct in assigning all without the red spiral line to that species. As many as 25 could be found under a bush two feet in diameter and the same in height. There were about as many under the sage brush as anywhere. Up the slope on the sandstone there were none seen by us, either dead or alive. Returned to campo at 5 p.m. quite wet and tired. At camp saw nighthawks and killdeer. The channels cut in the lower Mancos shales just above the sandstone, where we found the fossil Inoceramus south of camp is up to 10 ft. deep and very narrow, so narrow in places as to make very difficult walking and sides too nearly vertical to be scaled. Little Beaver Creek below camp has a channel about 8 feet deep and same width at top, about 2 feet to 4 ft. wide at bottom, and cannot be seen until close to it. Small wallows along its banks furnished our firewood. Lack of igneous and granite boulders in the stream debris is noticeable, showing that the stream flows only through sedimentaries. Upon reflection I am sure th upper sandstone horizon underlaid by black shales is the same one we searched at the dome east of Meeker a week or more ago, and is lower Mancos.

Little Beaver Creek, Colo.
Aug 19, 1909, Thursday

Broke camp at 10:45 a.m., drove back to stone school house 5 miles east of Meeker, then turned southeast up White River. Saw a few lark buntings east of school house. Partly cloudy. Where we camped there were no trees but scrub willows. When we entered the canyon we found narrow leafed cottonwoods etc. in the bottom lands cedar and scrub oaks on canyon slopes. Dakota formation forms escarpment on south side of river, sandstone at top. Found greenish hard shales or fine grained sandstone as at dome east of Meeker- possible Jurassic or maybe medial Dakota (?). Typical Morrison limestones, sandstones and greenish and maroon shales lie beneath the escarpment and rest upon reddish, thinbedded, crossbedded sandstones resembling the Lyons sandstones of southern Larimer County, but likely of later age. The river just within the canyon occupies the valley back of the Dakota escarpment. Dips here are approximately north (N by NW perhaps). Dips from Piceance Creek to here are thus: ((drawing in field book)). Collected Vallonia, Pupilla, Vitrina and Pyramidula 10 miles from Meeker, just within the canyon a mile or two. This is the first place I have found Vallonia common on the trip, I believe. We soon passed into the red beds. The grade of the canyon being less than the dip of the strata, we got rapidly into lower strata. Below the sandstone which is mentioned above and which may be the equivalent of the top of the Lykins formation in Larimer County (( probably State Bridge Formation)), are typical “red beds”, deep red sandstones and shales exactly like the Lykins north of Boulder (( probably Maroon Formation)). Exposures, as usual, are much better on north side of canyon on account of vegetation covering the slopes on the ((other)) side. There is much oak scrub on the slopes. At 2:30 we fed the horses and lunched 12 miles above Meeker. Rained from 1 to 2:15 p.m. Roads muddy. Continued on to Buford P.O., just above the forks of White River, on the North Fork, about a mile above the forks, 24 miles from Meeker, reaching there at 7 p.m. We crossed the river about two miles down, then crossed the South Fork, which was fortunate, at ((as?)) the P.O. is on the south side of the North Fork and the bridge is out over the latter. We came up all the way on the south side. Vegetation much more varied than below. Found blue and Engelmann spruce several miles down. Quaking aspens abundant on south side of canyon, north side nearly treeless, cedars having nearly disappeared below. Upon reaching the P.O. Robbins received a letter announcing the serious illness of his mother. Postmaster’s name is J. R. Bartlett, from Vermont. Alt 7200 ft.

Buford, Colo., Friday, Aug 20/09

Clear cold morning. Robbins and I arose at 5:30 and got our breakfast of bacon, pancakes and coffee. I went down gulch and collected Vallonia, Pupilla, Vitrina, Euconulus and Oreohelix cooperi in aspen groves. Found one Planorbis exacuous and some unknown bivalve in a small natural pond (probably cut-off ox-bow loop) down stream where we saw ducks last evening as we drove in. Saw one red shafted flicker, one Arkansas flycatcher, one green tailed towhee, a lot of Brewer sparrows, Brewer blackbirds and cliff swallows. Robbins left on horseback at noon for Newcastle, 40 miles distant, to catch the train and return to Boulder on account of his mother’s illness, having failed in his effort to get telephonic or telegraphic communication. Terry and Robbins caught 3 trout this forenoon and Felger put up bird skins. Felger is now (4:45) out hunting. At 6 p.m. he came in with a lot of doves and I cooked a trout supper. It has been a beautiful day. Threatening rain for a while in afternoon but not raining here. Mosquitoes are bad here. At dusk we set 3 traps for field mice, baiting with biscuit.

Buford, Colo., Saturday
Aug 21, 1909

Partly cloudy morning. Up at 7 a.m. Found 2 mice in traps. Set Terry to collecting plants in Robbins’ place. I put up the mice while Felger put up birds. At noon it rained hard and hailed for a long time and continued to drizzle for most of the afternoon. At 4 p.m. we had dinner consisting chiefly of nine mourning doves, a real treat. I boiled and washed a large number of dish cloths and towels in the afternoon. Have had wet boots all afternoon from wading in the weeds in search of dry wood. Cut down 2 dead trees. At six p.m. Felger and I set 8 traps. I found a number of Succinea sp. on logs at the water’s edge, and a single Aplexa hyperorum in the water of a small channel of the river. The river here, as below, forms numerous islands. After dark it cleared rapidly from the west and at 8 p.m. there was only a small cloud up river.

Buford, Colo. Sunday
Aug, 22, 1909

Bright morning, Two mice in traps, and tail of another. One was in the wet grass by the river side, the other under some bushes as the two yesterday, in a sage brush patch in the alfalfa field. Growth of vegetation on north slopes and irrigated meadows here is rank and profuse. I collected lots of Pupillidae, one Vallonia and some Oreohelix cooperi in aspens, having lost the bottle collected Friday. On return to camp found Joseph Hatsfield, a prospector, a friend of Mr. Riland, waiting to see me. Mr. Collins, foreman of the K-T summer camp, also called in afternoon. I collected a lot of Pyramidula, a few Vallonia, and Euconulus, and Zonitoides in a narrow leafed cottonwood grove along the river bottom opposite camp. Then spent balance of afternoon lounging around and writing postal cards. Perfectly clear and quite chilly this evening. Cumulus clouds were hanging about all day.

Buford, Colo., Aug. 23, 1909

A bright morning. I went down to stream with Felger and took three pictures- one looking up North Fork over the post office, one looking across the river and up South Fork, the third looking down the gulch at the forks of the stream. Felger shot a red tailed hawk and it dropped a big chipmunk, which I secured and skinned. I also prepared 5 skins of mice- two species. It sprinkled at times during the afternoon and as we are finishing our evening’s work (except cleaning guns and loading plate holders). At 10:45 it is very dark and cloudy.

Buford, Colo., Aug. 24, 1909.

It rained and sprinkled at intervals through the night. Partly clear at daylight. Arose at 6:30. We left all our specimens except some plants not yet dry at the post office, and forded the North Fork of the river at 10 a.m. and started up stream. Road good, but very hilly. Kept north side of river to Patterson’s ranch, about seven miles above Buford, where we crossed Fawn Creek and camped at 12:15 for lunch and to feed horses. Continued at 1:15 about half mile up on north side and crossed to south side. At Fitzgerald’s we left the river and turned southeast up Marvine Creek, calling on Fitzgerald. Simpson lives just below on the river. Continued up south side of Marvine Creek to Marvine Lodge and camped just above the lodge at 3:50. Rube Ball, who has it (the lodge) leased as a fish hatchery had just left yesterday and Mr. Billy Green was in charge. The narrow leafed cottonwood continued nearly to Fitzgerald’s I believe. Silver and Douglass spruces were common for some distance below, increasing in numbers along the river bottoms and mingled with aspens on the north slopes (south side). Aspens abundant all along on north slopes and for last few miles abundant on north slopes (sic). Several holes look like glacial topography, but saw no other evidence. Developed Robbins negatives in evening. Got to be at 9:45. Clear most of day and tonight. ((Sketch map in field book of White River from Meeker to Marvine Creek))

Marvine Lodge, Colo.,
Aug 25, 1909

Lost my fountain pen, so must use lead pencil for balance of trip. A beautiful morning. We got saddles for our horses and an extra saddle horse at the lodge and started up the creek at 9:55. Just above camp are two depressions which must be of glacial origin. The large is about 50 feet wide and 20 feet deep, nearly circular. Proceeding up gulch such depressions become more common and soon the typical hummocky topography of glaciated regions is found. Most of the depressions are dry. The stream and glacial debris is all volcanic, a dark colored lava, weathering gray, containing many zeolites, surface of many boulders pitted by solution of the zeolites. The road ends about a mile up the gulch, and a well travelled trail continues, passing in places over fallen timber. A mile and a half or two miles up above camp we found an enclosed lakelet about 150 feet long and 100 feet wide. Collected Lymnaea palustris, Valvata sp., 2 Planorbis cf. trivolvis and water bugs. At Slide lake, about five miles above camp we found trout and water snakes of the species collected down stream> That must be about 8000 feet above sea level. This lake is distinctly morainal. Lower Marvine Lake is three miles further up and much larger. We did not visit the upper lake. These lakes are situated between cliffs of lava probably 700 or 800 feet high. Felger and Terry fished. I started down stream, collected land snails under aspens. Just below Slide Lake I found a lot of dead Oreohelix cooperi and one live one. Reached camp at 6 p.m. Felger and Terry came in at 7 p.m. with 7 good sized trout which we had for supper. I set 10 traps- 6 mice traps and 4 steel traps. This has been a delightful day. Cold evening.

Marvine Lodge, Colo.,
Thursday, Aug. 26, 1909

A beautiful morning. Caught two mice and a little chipmunk. G. W. Smart, an old trapper, who has charge of the fish hatchery, called at camp this morning. Felger collected several caddis larvae cases made of Valvata shells in the pond where we collected Valvata yesterday. About 11 a.m. found a shrew in one mouse trap and a big chipmunk in a steel trap. I mounted the latter and a pine squirrel taken by Felger and Felger prepared the others. In evening Green gave us 11 fine trout, which we had for supper, and used the heads for bait for the four mink traps which Felger set. Fine day. Not so cool this evening.

Marvine Lodge, Colo., Friday, Aug 27, 1909

A mink in fine pelage in one trap, a shrew and three mice in the mouse traps. Cloudy morning. Felger and Green left at 11 a.m. on horseback with pack horses for a three day elk hunt. I prepared mink and shrew skin. At noon it began to rain and rained considerably throughout the afternoon. Cloudy and threatening at bedtime.

Marvine Lodge, Colo., Saturday
Aug. 28, 1909

Fine, bright morning. One steel trap sprung and dragged but nothing in it. Bait gone from all of them. Only one large-eared mouse and a chipmunk in the mouse traps. Terry shot two chipmunks. I skinned one and we made rough skeleton of the other and the mouse and placed them on an anthill for the ants to clean. Terry caught a trout and rebaited one mink trap and I rebaited the mouse traps with corn meal mush except one, which I baited with chipmunk meat. Tried to find the woodchuck which Terry saw yesterday, but failed. Smart also reported one below the cabins. Felger came into camp at 6:45 and left again at once. Brought Oreohelix, Vitrina, Zonitoides, Pyramidula and Thysanophora. Partly cloudy afternoon and evening.

Marvine Lodge, Aug 29, 1909

Fine mink in one of the steel traps this morning and a field mouse in a mouse trap – latter baited with corn meal mush. In late afternoon I found a very small shrew in another, also baited with mush. He was caught head in as if eating the bait. Partly cloudy all day. Felger returned at supper time without any game.

Marvine Lodge, Colo., Monday
Aug 30, 1909

Three mice in traps, the red backed one in one steel trap. We packed up and broke camp at 10:50 and drove to James Fitzgerald’s, where we got three saddles and a saddle horse and started up river to Sam T. B. Hines’. Topography glacial> At mouth of Marvine Creek we found red sandstones which continued their exposures for 10 or 12 miles up river on south bank. Reached dense pine forests on south side of river about one or two miles below Hines’ place, but quaking aspens etc. principal trees on north side. The last three miles or so we have seen no more sandstone and the glacial debris is all lava as in Marvine Creek. Reached Hines’ place at 4:05 p.m. about 15 miles above Fitzgerald’s, it is said. Dense pine timber comes down to south side of canyon to the bottom of the slope and ends abruptly. Scant tree growth on north side. Vegetation indicates about 9000 feet, I should say. Includes blue gentians so common at Silver Lake , yarrow, bright light red elder berries, dwarf willows etc. Hines says altitude is 8,500. Met a Mr. Buckingham and father, of Tennessee, who comes here often. I collected a few Oreohelix cooperi in aspens back of our tent, all dead- one so recently dead as to smell bad and containing a lot of dead young shells. Got accommodation for the nigh in a tent house and meals at Himes’ boarding-house. Saw a few red sandstone fragments in the debris on the north side of the river. The lava above here at Marvine Lakes, is distinctly stratified, with variously colored strata in the walls, red predominating.

Trapper’s Lake, Colo.
Aug. 31, 1909

Up at 6 a.m. Breakfasted at Sam Hines boarding house. Took picture of lodge. Partly cloudy, rained during night. Started for the lake, six miles up, at 8:15 a.m. Trail good for a mile or two, then steep, rocky and muddy, showing rains of last night. Glaciation more prominent as we advanced. Lava walls of canyon same as at Lake Marvine. About a mile or two below the lake we found a swamp containing great quantities of dead Pisidium sp., and Lymnaea bulimnoides, Planorbis parvus, and a larger Lymnaea but found none alive except a very few Pisidium. Further up a small lakelet contained a Lymnaea resembling L. palustris , but much shorter spire and Pisidium, the latter largely composing a few caddis larvae cases. Oreohelix cooperi we found all the way up, including even in patches of pure pine forest. Reached the lake at about 11 a.m., took some pictures and collected plants and conies. It began to rain as we were ready to start back, There were snow banks in sight at various places. Reached Sam Hines’ at 1:50 and reached our camp at Fitzgerald’s about 5 p.m., very tired and wet. Rained all afternoon until we were nearly in camp. Col. Montgomery, of Meeker, called at camp. He was up after fish from the hatchery. Partly clear at bedtime. Just above camp the aspens come to the base of the slope on the south side of the river and end abruptly, giving way to the age brush terrace just as the pine forests do up the river. That feature characterizes the river from Marvine Creek to Hines’.

Fitzgerald’s, Wednesday, Sept. 1, 1909

Arose at 5:30 and got breakfast for Felger, who started at 6:40 with Daniel Frost, for deer. Cloudy. After getting my own breakfast I began skinning mammals and worked at it steadily from 8 a.m. to 8 p.m., stopping only to eat dinner at 1 p.m. I prepared 5 cony ((pika)) skins and one rat. The latter was caught by Billy Green at Marvine Lodge. Terry put up a big field mouse caught by a cat near camp. She also caught a shrew but it was too badly mutilated to keep. At dark it was clear. Frank Hayes, a Glenwood Springs taxidermist, and Mr. Hatcher, a former student under me in the law school, called at the camp just before dark. At 10 o’clock Felger and Frost had not returned, so Terry and I went to bed.

Fitzgerald’s. Sept. 2, 1909

Cloudy morning. Felger and Frost reached camp at 12:30, having killed an elk cow and her calf. They brought in the hides, skulls and part of the meat. Walking, and packing the stuff on horses. I got up and made coffee and fried some potatoes. Got to bed again at 2 a.m. Arose at 6 and got breakfast of Elk liver, pancakes and coffee. Felger and Frost started at 8:15 horseback with two pack horse after the elk meat, accompanied by Mr. Thatcher. I employed Mr. Hayes to clean and prepare the skins, while I put up two rodent skins which Felger had skinned out at Marvine Lodge, and then after taking pictures, began repacking our load. Felger and Frost arrived at 4:30 p.m. with the meat. We got supper, packed the meat and at 6 p.m. we started for Buford with a heavy load. It was slow travelling, particularly after dark. Camped just across river from Buford P.O. at 9:20 and Felger at once began to bone the meat. It has been a warm sunny day and is not very cold tonight.

Buford, Colo., Friday
Sept. 3, 1909

Up at 6:46. I retired last night at 10:30, Felger at 12:30. Warm, bright morning. Started down river at about 11 a.m.. Before we reached the Mud Springs road bridge it began to rain and continued most of the time through early afternoon. We reached bridge at 12:20 and fed the horses. The got Henry La Kamp, a boy about a mile up the river, to put on an extra team and help us up the big hill where the Mud Spring road leaves the river canyon. The road, always steep and rocky, was also muddy and slippery because of the rain. We had a terrible time. Horse would not pull together well at first. We all helped a great deal, and were much exhausted when we reached the top a dusk and unhitched about 4 miles from the bridge. We left the elk meat, bedding and tent about half way up the hill. Felger and Henry returned to the camp ranch horseback for a light rig to bring up the rest of the load. I provided Terry with a cracker and canned peach lunch and sent him back to open up the meat to cool and stay with it. I ate a similar lunch after feeding the horse and finding a pool from which I could drink. Then I worked at repacking our load and got the portion which is here in much better shape. At 9:30 I built a fire to take off the growing chill of a September night at 8000 feet above sea level and prepared to spend the night without bedding, shelter or water to drink. The first task now is to get my boots dry, as they are wringing wet. It is now (10 p.m.) clear and beautiful, as the moon is arising above the treetops. This certainly has been a strenuous afternoon. At 11 o’clock I crawled under the wagon with the slicker about me and laid down to rest.

Mud Spring Road, Colo.
Sept 4, 1909

At 2 p.m. (sic) it got too cold for me under the wagon, so I got up, replenished the fire and laid down before it the balance of the night. An old bull kept rumbling around all night and toward morning the coyotes were noisy. At 4 a.m. it clouded up and rained gently until after daylight. I arose at 6 a.m., fried some ham, baked potatoes in the ashes and ate my breakfast. Finished packing the part of the load that is at the wagon, harnessed the horses and collected Euconulus, Vitrina and Pupillidae and saw some Oreohelix cooperi. Felger arrived at about 9 a.m. with A. J. La Kamp and son Henry, who brought up the part of the load “ditched” yesterday, with a light wagon, team and saddle horse. We got all the load to the top of the hill at 11:30, then put it on our wagon and proceeded with our team only. About 1 p.m. we fed the horses at Mud Spring. The water was cold and good. Road quite hilly from there south until one started into gulch leading into Dry Elk Creek, after which it is down grade to Newcastle. Reached Newcastle-Rifle Gap road about seven miles above Newcastle. It began to rain just before starting down grade and continued until we reached town at about 9 p.m. Road was slippery, badly washed and the latter part of the trip so dark that Terry walked ahead with the lantern for safety. Still storming when we had gotten a bath, supper at a restaurant and to bed at midnight.

Newcastle, Colo.
Sept. 5, 1909

Still raining, continued all day. Felger left at about 10 a.m. Terry and I packed our outfit, consisting of about 23 boxes and bundles. Finished at about 3 p.m. Then I wrote letters. Terry left for Boulder at 5 p.m.. In evening it was cloudy but not raining. I retired at 7:45, very tired.

Newcastle, Colo.
Sept 6, 1909
Raining this morning. I arose at 6:15, got breakfast, By 8 a.m. I had gotten all our material down to the depot and shipped it – 19 boxes and bundles by freight and seven by express. It quit raining about 10 a.m.. All trains on both roads are far behind time, so have put in the time figuring up expenses of the trip, reading the papers, and strolling about town. Total shipments of the trip including camp outfit but excluding personal baggage in form of suitcases 36 boxes and bundles. Left Newcastle at 4:25 on Colorado Midland R.R. At Newcastle the Grand River cuts through into the Mesa Verde formation. Above Newcastle it occupies the Mancos, which is largely covered by debris of the broad river valley, but well exposed by a ridge a few miles up on south side of river. The south canyon wall is Mesa Verde with coal mines. North wall shows red beds, into which we soon passed, so that walls were of hard red sandstones, probably Carboniferous. Toward Glenwood Canyon swung around and formations changed, but I do not know what they are. Reached Glenwood Springs at 4:55. Raining when we left Newcastle, still raining. I walked up to school house in SE part of town turned and climbed east wall of canyon. Found Oreohelix gabbiana abundant and probably O. cooperi, but no haydeni. Walked north along foot of canyon wall to NE part of town, about east of Rio Grande depot and found O. haydeni and probably O. cooperi mixed together. Did not look for live shells and did not climb slope here. Vegetation mostly mt. mahogany and scrub oak below, conifers above. No pictures on account of rain. Left Glenwood at 6:45. No sleeper accommodations and no seats except in smoker, on account of all trains being delayed and passengers thereby accumulated on this one.

(( End of notebook 3))

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Field Notes of Junius Henderson. Transcribed by Peter Robinson, 2001. comments in double parentheses (( )) added by PR, and parenthetical statements by Henderson in the notebook itself are in single parentheses ( ). I have translated all his “+” marks to “and”, have written (sic) after words where I think there are grammatical/spelling errors, have italicized the Linnaean names, and have placed an interrogation (?) where I am not sure of the orthography.

Boulder, Colorado

July 28, 1905. Saw Say Phoebe and Siskins, Robin, Flicker.

July 29, Saw Say Phoebe, Hear a Robin at 11:30 last night

July 30, Saw Say Phoebe

July 31, heard Siskin at noon at Court House, have seen none for a week. Expenses Florissant trip, 2 tickets to Denver Dr. Ramaley and I —-$2.00. Saw a Kingbird and Robin on way to depot. Left Boulder with Dr. Ramaley at 5:15 p.m., reached Denver about on time. Stayed at Oxford Hotel to be near depot in the morning. Went to City Park and heard band and saw moving pictures including “Stage Robbery” which, to say the least, was not an elevating spectacle, nor helpful to venturesome boys, apt to be carried away with the wildness of such a life.

August 1. Special rate, Denver to Florissant, $4.50, pd $9.00 for Ramaley and I. Left Denver at 9:40 (40 min. late) on Colo. Midland (via C & S) for Florissant. A few miles before Castle Rock appeared scrub oaks on hills and long leafed pines in valleys. In valleys we saw perfectly stratified horizontal formations, with hills capped by hard horizontal rocks. Further north recognized Niobrara Ridge, Dakota Ridge and Triassic Ridge to the west of the RR. In one place, rocks like Boulder Red Rocks – possibly a short resistant zone in the Jura. Apparently the oaks are southern species pushing northward from New Mexico, hence occupying dry positions, while the pines, pushing out from the mountains seek more moist situations, but a little further south the pines mingle with the oaks in dryer situations and also appear on rocky ridges, as at Boulder. The oak line is sharply drawn. They do not encroach at all upon the lower part of the valleys which are open brush less meadows with occasional sharply defined patches of oak brush. A few miles before reaching palmer Lake trees disappear to some extent from the valleys. The rocks to the NW of RR are abrupt and carved into turrets and monuments. Do not recognize the formation. Palmer Lake is right up against the foothills, but does not seem an attractive place. The foothills appear to be Dakota sandstone. Only birds recognized to Colo. Springs were magpies, and a few redwing blackbirds and many mourning doves. Left Colo. Springs at 12:20, 50 minutes late. Seats all filled. Did not dine but got a little fruit. from Manitou we traveled through what appeared to be Paleozoic rocks below the Jura Trias. The Paleozoic, if such, resting upon granite, which granite continued from then on, climbing rapidly. Saw dippers soon after entering the granite gorge. More open above Cascade , alt 7500. 15 miles from Colo. Springs closes in again near Green Mountain Falls but continued even more meadowy beyond there like Estes Park. Prairie dog town between Green Mt. Falls and Woodland Park about 8000 ft., occurring even among the long leaf pines. Aspens appeared at 8400 ft. Probably a northern plant, hence not found as low here as at Boulder. Spruces also appeared at 8400 or 8500 ft. Prairie dogs again at Edlorne (?) 8950 ft. Top of divide between S. Platte and Arkansas drainage open and rolling along RR with scattered groves of pines and spruces 9200 ft. alt. 1 magpie here. Red Gilia and (?) here with Potentilla fratrosa (?). At Florissant Lark buntings, Mt. Bluebirds, cliff swallows, barn swallows, brewer’s blackbird, lark sparrows, flicker, English sparrows. Sta. 2. Lava dyke at NE corner of town very badly shattered and weathered breaking onto rather flat, irregular pieces, very unstable underfoot and in one place greatly broken, opening up crevices from 2 to 10 ft. wide and as deep, filled to that depth with debris, 80 ft. above creek bed. Sta.1 Fossil leaves at point NW of hotel in several strata immediately beneath strata of volcanic ash and sand. Prairie dogs at Florissant 8100 ft. Sta. 3. Up first gulch ward N of Sta. 1. Florissant Lake basin is a mountain park divided by a ridge into two portions. The surrounding mountains are not as high and abrupt as at Estes Park but more rolling, and streams are small. Can jump across the two streams at Florissant postoffice (sic) now. The old lake beds so far as we saw them today are mere remnants of former more extensive beds, and contain many bands of volcanic ash and sand, the main portion of the beds, except in patches along the edges of the marginal hills, having been eroded away. Igneous dykes border the old lake basin at various places, but as yet see no connection between these and the volcanic debris in the lake beds. I believe the igneous rocks are older.

Florissant, Colorado

Aug. 2 Went up track to RR cut E of town. River terrace in Lake beds there dissected by numerous gullies cut from top of mesa to base. Bright clear comfortable morning. Heard flickers calling and Brewer’s blackbirds singing as I worked. Sta. 4. RR cut just around point E. of Florissant. Leaves plentiful in a narrow stratum half way to top of cut, but few good specimens comparatively. I cut a diagonal furrow from the top of the cliff well down into the talus and found leaf bearing zones an inch or two in thickness alternating with barren zones of greater thickness. The fossiliferous zones were somewhat persistent, so far as I examined. Calcite bands and yellowish strata so and pronounced at Station 1 were absent here. Strata quite wet in places, upon digging in.

Station 4 ((5)) next cut above Station 3 ((4)) being through a sort of breccia or conglomerate of (apparently) an igneous rock containing quartz pebbles. Do not exactly understand it. Further up the RR and consequently a little higher appears a 25 foot exposure of coarse, rudely stratified rather angular gravel including at least one continuous bed of water worn boulders. The strata are nearly horizontal and are truncated by the slope of the hill at the west. Next cut up the hill is in granite, the gravels resting upon the granite. Collected about 275 specimens at station 4 ((5)) today. Hot a.m., cool, cloudy p.m. ((in text for Aug 3rd Henderson corrects 3 to 4 and 4 to 5))

Aug. 3. Hot, bright morning. Went up creek after breakfast, found another lava breccia on banks of creek west of stations 4 and 5. Packed the remainder of the fossils at station 4 and brought them down. The bluebirds here are either western or chestnut backed, instead of mountain bluebirds. Saw a marsh hawk, say phoebe, and v. g. swallow, long crested jay. Started down to Lake George at 8:40 a.m. with horse and buggy. Lake about 5 miles below Florissant. On way saw rounded knobs which looked as if they were of glacial origin, but have found no moraines here. At head of Lake George, which is an artificial lake said to have been made ice purposes etc. about 15 years ago, found caddis larva. Also found Limnaea similar to those from Meeker, in great abundance, but only on the delta. Found a few dead shells further down the lake shore but none alive there. In the mouth of Twin Creek found a few Physa, smooth like P. integra, lying on the gravel, very hard to see. The Limnaea were on the muddy bottom of the delta, nearly all adult, but smaller specimens, probably young of same species, were found abundantly for a few hundred feet up the creek. At outlet of the lake, in a seepage pool just below the dam, were great numbers of Limnaea, alive, mingled with dead shells of a large Physa, but I could find none of the live Physas. The lake is formed by a dam thrown across the South Platte River shortly below the mouth of the stream which runs past Florissant. At the upper end are forming just such beds of fine mud as compose some portion of the Florissant lake beds. The beds were very much cracked, many of the cracks being an inch or two wide and nearly a foot deep, dividing the mud into blocks from a few inches to 3 feet across. The waters of the South Platte flow through Granite Canyon and enter the lake quite roilly (sic), and leave the lake in about the same condition, but soon gather great quantities of sediment from the fine silt of the valley and becomes (sic) very muddy-almost black, which condition continues as far we drove down the river- a mile or two. Near the western end of Florissant lake basin we found an incline shaft cut to a depth of about 5o feet through the tertiary lake beds, and 30 or 40 feet of the beds exposed above the shaft. The whole capped by what may be a crumbling stratum of volcanic ash 3 or 4 feet in thickness. We found a shaft sunk also at the base of the east wall of the igneous dyke north of Florissant postoffice (sic), which we are told was sunk in search for gold by a man who claimed to have found a shaft already started, presumably by the original inhabitants, with timbers left therein. It is more probable that he found one of the holes left by the crevicing of the rocks before mentioned , and possible (sic) found timbers used by Indians or prospectors in preparing the hole for shelter purposes. But I cannot imagine why the shaft was sunk in the lake beds. Saw a kingfisher. Daniel Nevitt, the hotel keeper says the shaft above mentioned was sunk in search of coal because the shales got blacker as depth increased. He also says the Platte is generally not so muddy. Saw a bat last night and another this evening.

Aug. 4 Yesterday and the day before the sun was intensely hot and dazzling in the forenoon, but clouds relieved the intensity of the heat in the afternoon. In spite of the intense heat and some hard work I have sweat almost none. I feel my skin drying up. It is cool at all times in the shade-almost too cool- even when the sun’s rays are hottest. This is a very bright morning. Breakfasted at 6:30 as usual. Dr. Ramaley changed dryers on his plants and we started south to the fossil stump with buggy at 8:30 a.m. Terribly hot in the sun. A male and female redwing blackbird passed the hotel before we started-the first we have seen here, though Brewers blackbird is quite common. Heard a chickadee, but too far away to determine the species. We found the old trenches near the fossil stump filled with debris. Tried to dig down to the fossil beds we wished to reach with picks alone but it was such slow work I asked Dr. Ramaley to go back to the village with the horse and buggy and bring a shovel and bucket of water as working in the heat without water was too much for me. I dug a diagonal trench at the north end of the hill while he was gone. After lunch we began a cross cut to reach the lowest part of the former workings, which gives us a fine section. Worked hard all afternoon taking turns with pick and shovel, but found only 4 insects, though about 200 good fossil leaves, some of them being very fine. The formation there is capped by several feet of consolidated volcanic ashes. The fossil stump is about 6 or 8 ft in diameter. 3 saws broken off in the attempt to saw it up for transportation to the World’s Columbian Exposition still remain in the stump. Near it is a large fossil log nearly buried. Got back to hotel at 6:30. Lunch 10›, cotton 10›, twine 5›. The fossil stump above referred to is on a hill left by the erosion of the Lake Beds in the southern portion of the Basin and tradition has it that his measurements of the strata were made at the northwest corner of the hill.

Aug. 5

Another bright, hot morning. The RR people keep 3 or 4 engines steamed up here all the time to help trains up the steep grade to Divide. They must waste much coal, as the escape valves hiss by the hour. I had a very narrow escape from the loss of an eye yesterday. While digging in very hard rock with the big pick a piece of rock struck me a terrific blow an inch over the eye, the flat side striking, so that it did not cut much, but dazed me for a moment or two. An inch lower would have struck the right lens of my glasses, the result of which could not be safely predicted. Saw a sparrow hawk. It clouded shortly after noon and sprinkled more or less during the afternoon. We finished the cross cut at the fossil stump, but found comparatively little. Made a cross cut at the northeast corner of same hill, which is locally reported to be the point of which Prof. Scudder gave a section in his monograph, but did not find the strata at all conformable to his section. It seems certain that is not the place. Went to the S end of the Park and over into the Arkansas drainage. If it be true, as is supposed, that the ancient lake drained at one time southward into the Arkansas, but was afterwards turned westward into the South Platte, the uprising ridge must have crossed the valley either at the very end of the lake or a little way into the lake, as we found lake beds involved with igneous rocks and granite at what we took for the former terminus, showing in at least one place considerable movement just north of the present divide between the Arkansas and South Platte drainage. On the Arkansas side of the divide we found a park which may have originally included the lake, but we saw no sedimentary deposits there, while in all portions of what we know to have been included we find numerous outcrops. The topography there is also somewhat different, particularly in respect to the lack of steep slopes and mountain walls. It may be that there are lake beds there, but unexposed on account of gentle slopes not favoring erosion.

Aug. 6

Fine, bright, Sunday morning, but threatens a hot forenoon. Haven’t slept at all well this trip. Am tired and sore from the hard rock work of Friday and Saturday and my catarrh has been very bad for several days on account of getting heated in the forenoon, then chilled by the sudden cooling of the atmosphere in the afternoon, accompanied by wind and sprinkles of rain, this occurring every day. Mr. Nevitt, the hotel keeper, gave us some specimens of quartz and amazon stone crystals this morning from Topaz Peak, sometimes called Crystal Mt., due north of Florissant. He also accompanied me to some fossil beds SW of the hotel, about a mile, this morning, where we did a little exploring, preparatory to tomorrow’s work. In walking past Station 1 this evening I noticed that the dip is NW which conforms to the idea of an uplift from the SE. Have not noticed any dip before. 2 night hawks very tame, apparently nesting, as they circled over one spot and soon alighted after we looked away.

Aug. 7

Bright warm morning. Started for the fossil beds at 8:15 a.m. Did not succeed very well at the place 1 mile SW of town, but got nearly 100 leaves and a few insects. We closed our collecting at 1:30 p.m. and brought our outfit to the hotel where we began packing. The fossils are all first wrapped in paper and packed in pasteboard boxes, these boxes to be packed in wooden boxes. The rock and mineral specimens are to go into wooden boxes loose. Discovered strong dip to the NW at our morning station, while nearby it was strong to the SW. Saw mourning doves and house wrens. Got specimens packed in 4 wooden boxes. Went to spring in evening and were caught in hard rain. The afternoon was clearer than usual. Am completely used up by the heavy digging for the last week and am heartily glad we are through.

Aug. 8

Bright morning but soon clouded. Am spending the day chiefly in resting from the fatiguing work recently done. Saw robins yesterday and today and a meadowlark Sunday evening. Shore bird common here has tip-(?) habit, white belly darker breast and neck, white of belly extending upwards slightly in front of wing-above uniform brownish bill about 1 inch long. Hotel and livery, Ramaley and I for 8 days- $17.00. Train seven hours late so Mr. Nevin for $2.00 drove us to Divide to catch the Cripple Creek-Denver train. On the road we saw grayheaded juncos. Just before reaching Divide we saw what appeared to be moraine, the first we have seen on the trip. It is possible that a glacier from Pike’s Peak may have reached as far as this, though the boulders may have been from streams. Train at divide was late, made us miss train at Colorado Springs, and as the later train was quite late we went to the Alamo Hotel and stayed all night, first going to college grounds and to Stratton Park where we heard fine music by Colorado Midland band. Supped at Depot restaurant, an excellent by high priced place.

Aug. 9

Cool morning but got warm. Breakfasted at Depot restaurant, caught train to Denver at 7:30 a.m., half hour late. Lunched at Oxford and caught 1 p.m. train for Boulder.

End of Florissant Trip

Silver Lake- Arapahoe Trip

Aug. 29, 1905

Finished packing and loaded wagon in evening-last evening-putting tents over load to keep it dry. The load is a heavy on for two horse over a bad road. This morning opens bright and warm. Saw a phoebe in back yard before starting. H. F. Watts, F. G. Henderson, Harvey R. Markman, Sievert Rohwer and I started by narrow gauge C & N at 9:35 for Silver Lake Siding, the wagon having gone early – Al Anderson’s wagon and good team. Train consisted of four cars to Sunset, then 2 cars to Silver Lake Siding which we reached at 11:45 p.m. (sic), 15 minutes late. At((e)) lunch at the brook NE of the siding and collected a few Pisidium abditum (No.1) in the brook. Then started up the hill. Began raining on Ralston Peaks before we left the train. Sprinkled at intervals during afternoon and at bed time was warm and sprinkling with no wind. Watts and I reached Silver Lake at 3 p.m. Thinking that the other three and the team would be there but they were not, so Watts came on to select camp and I started back. Soon met Markman who said they had taken the wrong trail soon after leaving us while we were waiting to see if the wagon was coming. He had soon seen some men who had told him his mistake and promised to send others back, but they kept on until their trail played out, then through dead timber till the((y)) struck Camp Albion road where they were directed across to Silver Lake. I walked rapidly until I met the wagon about 4 miles back. We were unable to get to Goose Lake on account of logs across the road but arrived at the new city sawmill, head of Island lake about 6 p.m. where the boys had built a leanto, thinking perhaps we might not reach them. We got everything dry, put up two tents, Watts putting his cot and most of the out fit in one tent while we spread pine boughs in the other and laid very comfortable beds of blankets, quilts and canvass (sic). Markman is now putting up a Brewer Sparrow as I write these notes by a campfire preparatory to going to bed. Only birds seen were a long crested jay, Clark Crows, Rocky Mt, jays, chickadees, juncos, Mt. Bluebirds. Sievert saw a flicker. Watts is to sleep on his cot in the supply tent while the rest of us sleep in the other tent.

Aug. 30 -05

Rained during the night more or less, and the poor quality of the tents was manifest by the way the drops splattered through. All started for the glacier at 7:15 a.m. and made a slow trip. Collected small caddis cases and larva (No. 2) in stream from North Lake near High Fall, and some insects just above High Fall. The party showed fatigue in the following order: Sievert least, I next, then Watts, Then Markman, then Frank. Sievert and I went on ahead and climbed out of the cirque at The Saddle to photograph the glacier and the range. It is a fearful climb, the loose rock sliding at every step. Were much exhausted upon reaching the top and laid down for a few moments, then took two pictures and returned to the cirque to join Frank and Watts. Ate a few malted milk tablets and raisins while sitting on a boulder on the glacier. We easily found the tablets set last year. They were set as follows: No. 1 100 paces from the bench mark on Country Rock above NE moraine and 100 paces from edge of ice at that point. From No.1 to No. 2 was 89 ft; No. 2 to No.3 was 51.7 ft; No. 3 to No. 4 was 58.6 ft.; No.4 to No. 5 was 65.4; No. 5 to No.6 was 82.8 ft; No. 6 to No. 7 was 84.4 ft; No.7 to No. 873.8ft; No.8 to No.9 was 97.2 ft.; No. 9 to No. 10 was 114.4 ft.; the latter was just below the crevasses near the center of the glacier where the flow should be greatest. We found the tablets and accompanying boulders had moved as follows: No. 1 -11.15 ft; No.2 -11.9 ft;. No.3 -13ft; No.4 -15.9 ft; No. 5 – 16.75ft; No.6 -18.5 ft; No.7-20.6 ft: No. 8- 20.45 ft; No.9 21.7ft; No.10 – 27.7 ft. We also found unmistakable evidence of waste all along the front of the glacier except just west of the terminal lake, at which latter point it remained unchanged. At the big boulder on the north east moraine it had shrunk away at least 4 or 5 feet vertically. The medial moraine between that point and the terminal lake showed much more plainly and the same was true of the drainage basin west of the terminal lake. More ice was exposed than we have seen except in 1902, while there is more snow in many other places than last year, I believe. The photos will enable us to definitely decide that question by comparison. We found numerous insects, dead and alive, on the glacier, particularly abundant on the dead south branch and collected quite a number. Frank found a good mountain sheep head in the moraine at a point opposite The Saddle and Sievert and I brought it down with infinite toil, as we were already loaded down with cameras, including one big one, tripod, hammer, rocks etc. Just before leaving the glacier it hailed hard and at intervals all the way down it rained and hailed terrifically, with crashes of thunder. The brush was so wet we were soon soaked through. Sievert and I reached camp at 5:30 about half an hour after Frank and Markman, who started down long before us and with Watts whom we had overtaken. Watts and I were on our “last legs” but the others were not so tired. I felt the trip more than I ever have before, though kept up well on the way up. Carrying the heavy load without pack harness used me up and Watts probably felt the altitude, as usual the first day out. Had fried eggs for supper and they were good. Watts ate no supper. Ed Housel and another man from the sawmill called in the evening. It rained again as we were going to bed. Birds seen today Clark’s Crow and Rocky Mt jay, chickadees and juncos common up to High Fall. Above there pipits common, especially on glacier. At Saddle, Leucostictes (brown capped). Several undetermined hawks in the gulch. Pikas abundant from Goose Lake to Glacier.

Aug. 31 -05

Bright, windy morning. Boiled and then fried potatoes and bacon with smoke in eyes. Arose at 6:45 soon followed by the others and we spread out our wet clothes and shoes to dry. Markman began collecting crustacea before breakfast and continued after breakfast, while Frank and Sievert played cribbage and Watts started after mixomycetes. Collected caddis larva cases No. 3 on rocks not well attached, very loosely constructed of sticks placed horizontally. No. 4 of same style but very small; No. 5 of sand and mica, tapering rapidly less than half an inch long; No. 6 water beetle; No. 7 sticks with something on. No. 8 smooth, large caddis case of sand found in sand at bottom of lake; No. 9 Caddis cases of sand at bottom of water unattached. No. 10 includes one which has just shed its skin. Watts climbed a spruce tree and cut off its top for a big witche’s (sic) broom. Got long tailed chickadee and mountain chickadee, the latter with the first shot from the Gale gun. Collected insect galls from willow and huckleberry, and fungus on birch. At camp there are 6 ridges, parallel, within 100 yards running N 50ø E, a characteristic of this entire country from Silver Lake to High Fall, as well as the Camp Albion Gulch. The whole valley topography is glacial, but the direction of these ridges was undoubtedly predetermined by the lithology, probably hard and soft zones. Rained for a few moments in afternoon, but sun set nearly clear just as Sievert returned without fish. The sun’s rays have been very hot all day but quite cool after sundown.

September 1, 1905

White frost this morning. A pot sitting in the open which contained hot water at bedtime was covered by thin ice at sunrise. Another pot containing less cold water and one containing less hot water, neither of them was frozen. Up to this time (2:25 p.m.) there has not been a cloud in the sky, so far as I have seen. The sun’s rays are hot but a cool breeze makes it almost too cool in the shade. Frank and Sievert went fishing before sunrise, returning at 10:00 a.m. without fish. Watts started to walk to the train just before they arrived. Markman and I started up the canyon just after breakfast. He took the shotgun and auxiliary table I took Gale’s gun, the camp pack, camera, tripod, pick etc. Parted with Markman at Goose lake as he wanted to do some collecting there. I went up the south fork to North Lake where I ate a sandwich at 11 a.m., collected two pipits, some plants and a heavy load of garnetiferous granite, hornblende rock, etc. Had the pack and my hands full, about all I could carry. Took 3 photos and reached camp a little before 2. p.m. Markman not here yet. The snowbanks west of North Lake are crevassed, the crack probably being in the nature of the Bergschrund. As they cannot be called glaciers, it shows that crevasses above are not sufficient to indicate a glacier. Found numerous NE dykes similar to those near camp, but larger, some being so situated in the north gulch as to almost cross the track of the former glacier. Found one fair sized empty Pisidium shell and at the same place an empty land snail shell in a small stream near high fall. Markman saw a flicker up gulch and we both saw juncos, (warblers unidentified) and a sandpiper (spotted?). Markman returned at 4 p.m. having collected only a junco. A few clouds appeared at 5 p.m. Wind has been quite variable today but for the most part easterly. Perfectly clear at bedtime and not cold.

Sep. 2 – 05

White frost this morning and thick ice on the water pail between the tents. Cirrus clouds scattered in all directions at 8 a.m. Markman started at 6 a.m. to collect birds. Sievert started at 8 a.m. for the top of ridge south of lake to collect insects and see the country. Frank and I started for Silver lake Siding at 9 a.m. to meet John Andrews, picking wild raspberries on the way and arriving there (7 miles) at 11 a.m.. Took camp pack to carry up stuff. Train was nearly an hour late and John did not come but conductor, without stopping, put off a basket containing cocoa, evaporated cream, bottles, a package for Sievert and 4 cantaloupes. We ate two cantaloupes and a sandwich at the cabin spring, and left there at 1 p.m., reaching the first crossing of North Boulder at 2 p.m., where we rested 10 minutes. Reached Silver Lake at 2:36 and camp at 3 p.m. Markman returned at 1 p.m. with a bagful of birds and mammals including Douglas ? squirrel, , a merlin, etc. I saw white crowned sparrows and what I took for Audubon warbler. I don’t like the way the clouds are acting. At 3:15 I went down to the Island Lake Dam and collected water beetles, leaches (sic) and other “beasts”, returning at 5:25. Sievert returned at 4 p.m. with a lot of insects and a cony (sic) which was killed by a hawk. Saw flickers and warblers. Island lake is drained quite low and men under direction of Mr. Buffham are building up the dam, so I did not succeed in getting specimens of Sphagnum. The dead Sphagnum made a vertical wall 1 « to 2 ft high all around the lagoons.

Sep 3 – 05

It cleared in the night and west wind cleared away the clouds as well as the smoke of Denver smelters which had drifted in on the SE wind. Arose at 7:45. Markman started up lake to collect insect larva in a pool near the Goose Lake dam. At 9:10 Frank and I started for the train to meet John . At last creek crossing at 10 a.m. and at siding at 11:10, only stopping for water twice. Saw several hawks and collected some butterflies and moths. Stratus clouds scattered through the sky. Wind SE. Very warm in sun but breeze tempers suns rays and makes a coat comfortable in the shade. Train again so late as to afford ample opportunity for philosophic meditation upon the motives which inspire railroad people to advertise time which they do not expect to make except under rare circumstances. Train arrived at 1:05, 1 h 35 min. late. I carried the water melon in the pack and Frank carried the telescope containing pies etc. to the cabin spring , where we ate the melon sandwiches eggs etc. and started on at 2 p.m. Reached the creek at 3 p.m. rested 10 minutes and started on, John, Frank and I taking turns with the pack, arriving at camp at 4 p.m. Markman was here with Phyllopods, worms, larva, leaches, Pisidium etc. from polls above Goose lake (No. 11). I have labelled some larva from Island Lake No. 12. The clouds mostly cleared off by sundown and it got cool as usual. West half of sky clouded all over at bedtime.

Sep. 4, 1905

At daylight sky overcast with even, gray clouds. Soon after it began raining, continuing for 2 hours. Soon after breakfast rain began again and continued till 10 a.m. and at intervals until noon. Sun at times tried to break through. Violent wind on range from west and fog low on Mts. , but not cold. At 1:20 it looked like clearing, so Sievert and I started for ridge N of camp with camera and pick, Gale gun and insect net. From timber line could see clouds hanging over valley and foothills as well as mts. Collected a fern new to me. Brought back a heavy camp pack load of rocks and several birds. Nearly clear at dark. We returned at 6:15 very tired and had supper at 7. Wind has been west the greater part of the day, but at times easterly.

Sep. 5, 1905

Clouds hanging low over Arapahoe and most of the sky partly overcast. With strong west wind, which, however, did not reach camp. Risking a storm, John, Sievert and I, we started for the glacier and peak at 7:05 a.m. Were at foot of high fall at 8:15 and some distance above it at 8:35. Cool delightful travelling. The stream from the glacier shows the effect of cool, cloudy weather in the very greatly diminished flow of water. Clouds have hung over the glacier all day yesterday and today, but last nigh no ice formed at camp. Reached glacier in blinding sleet storm. Visited some of the largest crevasses. Ate lunch on the moraine, collected a lot of rocks and started for the saddle. Had to cut about 50 steps in the ice to reach the saddle. Hard work. Reached top of peak at 1 p.m. in blinding snowstorm but son cleared. John got sick at the top an vomited on way down. Terminal lake as green with rock flour as the next one below. We carried very heavy loads of rock down which with John’s sickness made a very slow trip down. Heard Moffit (sic) train whistle on the peak. Goose Lake has fallen 1 « ft. since last Wednesday. Reached camp at 4:15 and found Mr. Eggleston here with Al Anderson’s team to take us home in the morning, so began packing rocks, plants, insects etc.

Sept. 6, 1905

Arose at 6 a.m. and some began packing while others got breakfast. Got wagon loaded and started at 9:15. John rode to Bluebird road, whence we all walked down to North Boulder Falls, where we ate lunch at 11 a.m. Were caught in several showers and hail storms, taking shelter under trees and reaching Silver Lake Siding at 1 p.m. where Markman shot an Audubon or Myrtle warbler. Rained again just after reaching the siding. Hard rains extended clear out in the valley. Lack of sunlight prevented collecting insects on way down as we had hoped. Caught train at 2:20 p.m. Am perplexed by the entire absence of robins on this trip. Reached Boulder at 4:45, shaved, and after supper went to office for my mail and then to University to see that collections were properly taken care of.

Pawnee Butte Trip

Wednesday June 6, 1906 Boulder, Colo.

Spent the afternoon sorting camping outfit and began packing wagon at Hale Bldg., University campus, at 8:45 p.m. Very windy last night and again tonight. Thursday June 7, 1906 Gideon S. Dodds, Harvey C. Markman, Harry Clatworthy and I left Boulder in a camp wagon at 8:50, two riding in front and two behind. Broke a spring when about two miles north of town. Cut a block, blocked it up and went on, stopping to collect but little except a species of flax which I had not seen before, and some Pupa, Vallonia etc. at Six Mile Creek. Some of us walked considerable of the time. Reached Left Hand Creek at 12:10 and dined at 1:30, and were on the road again at 2:07.Went into camp at 4:30 p.m., on the St. Vrain in a place partially sheltered from the wind by timber. Has been a cold, windy, disagreeable day. Has snowed on the range in the neighborhood of Arapahoe Peak for two or three days. Saw Pike’s Peak and it was white with fresh snow. Saw redwinged blackbirds, saw numerous young; robins very common, lark buntings abundant, young out; lark sparrows, killdeer 12 or 15, mourning doves common, cliff swallows common, yellow warbler, magpies a few, meadowlarks abundant, vesper sparrows, wren sp., kingfisher at St. Vrain, barn swallows common, kingbird 1.

Friday June 8

Too cold to sleep well last night, so got up late. Finished breakfast at 8 p.(sic) m., Dodds and I collected plants in St. Vrain creek bottom just below Lyons all forenoon. Also collected some Mollusca. Zonitoidea arboreans plentiful under a narrow leafed poplar log. Markman and Harry out after birds etc. Went back up creek and collected Vallonia sp., Oreohelix strigosa and a few O. albofaciata at end of Dakota sandstone ridge. Dodds took pictures of valley. Left camp after a late dinner for crossing of Little Thompson Creek. Dodds and Markman went to Hygiene with the wagon to ship the plant collections (including a fine collection of fungus) to Dr. Ramaley at Boulder who is to attend to drying, arranging and labelling them. Harry and I crossed the headland formed by the big fold in the Dakota sandstone, travelling afoot. The heat was terrific. By the time we reached the Little Thompson Creek at the end of the Niobrara ridge we were very tired. We took off our boots, dangled our feet in the stream for ten minutes, got a good drink of water, and went our way much refreshed. Found a cache left by me several years ago when there with Prof. Spangler, containing several very large Inoceramus deformis, showing great deformity of the shell. Collected some concretions of crystalline marcasite, loaded the Inoceramus into bags and started down stream to meat the team which was to travel north from Hygiene. Our loads were very heavy and we were thoroughly fatigued. We found a ranch but they either knew nothing or were unwilling to part with the information. They told us the road running north from Hygiene was a mile further downstream, so we resumed our weary march, quite discouraged. When we reached the road we waited until a team came along. The driver seemed to know the country, and told us the folks would surely reach the creek at the very ranch where we got such bad advice, and that he saw the wagon travelling in that direction. We wearily cached our load and turned back , but soon saw the wagon coming. Reached a camping place in time to set up tents, make beds etc. before dark and ate supper by firelight, or rather lantern light. Then we sat around the campfire until 10 p.m. and then retired.

Little Thompson Creek Saturday June 9, 1906

Slept late in morning. Got a better night’s rest than before. We were some of us so cold in the night, though Harry complained of being cold because he had my tarpaulin under him, when he could well have had two or three folds over him. We emptied the wagon and Dodds and I took the empty wagon, leaving the others at camp, and went up the creek nearly to the basal Niobrara ((Fort Hayes ls.)). The upper Niobrara is badly folded and probably faulted. Dodds went nearly to the basal limestone and reports narrow, sharp folds, the apex eroded into sharp ravines cutting through the yellow upper shales ((Smoky Hill)) into the darker shales. Further east the shales round into abroad fold, then dip away sharply under the Pierre. At one point is a flat topped hill of Pierre Shale close to the creek, capped by sand and boulders, evidently isolated from the debris sheet of the plains border by erosion. A little W of N from the hill, across a broad valley, upper Niobrara dips SW very slightly, then further E it flattens, then dips to SE, then to east for a long ways thus ((drawing in field book)). This causes an escarpment for a long ways along the foothills, most of the way from Little Thompson to Big Thompson and probably further, the upper Niobrara being somewhat resistant, the overlying Pierre being eroded away. ((Drawing in field book)). We found no fossils in upper Niobrara except the bands of Ostrea congesta crowded on flattened Inoceramus sp. Just as they occur between Boulder and Left Hand Creeks. The basal limestone contains large numbers of Inoceramus deformis covered with Ostrea congesta, some of them (the Inoceramus) quite large. At the next cut through the Niobrara the shales are badly involved in places vertical, and a small stream cuts through the entire series of lower Pierre, in which I found only three poorly preserved Inoceramus barabini. Ian an exposure of Pierre nearly east of the SE point of the upper Niobrara there are many specimens of Baculites ovatus and Inoceramus barabini, usually poorly preserved, though I found one or two of the latter in good state of preservation. I found one limestone lens about two or three feet in diameter from which had weathered many specimens of small baculites showing the sutures very plainly, possibly young B. ovatus, and a few bivalves, with a fragment of some species of Scaphites and a couple of gastropods. We reached camp at 4:15, hastily broke camp and reached Big Thompson just below Loveland in time to set the tent before dark. Markman and Dodds went to town for provisions while Harry and I prepared the cots etc. At 9 p.m. Dodds returned and we had a good beefsteak supper, leaving some in the oven of the camp stove to keep warm for Markman, who returned at 10 p.m. just as I was ready to extinguish the light. It has been a hot, clear day. We are getting lots of alkali in the water now.

Big Thompson Creek, near Loveland. Sunday, June 10

Arose late, had breakfast of hot cakes. Got milk last night for first time. Starting in for a warm day, but at times cloudy. A slight breeze. We are camped on an island in a cottonwood grove. Has been cloudy and sultry this afternoon. We wrote postals and letters and Dodds went to town to mail them. I did not get through arranging, labelling, wrapping, and boxing mollusca and fossils collected yesterday and ay before until six o’clock, when we had stewed chicken and dumplings prepared by Harry. Harry is fishing and catching chubs etc. I have spent the entire afternoon in labelling and arranging the collections. Found more stuff stowed away after supper and worked until dark, with Dodds’ help. All retired at 10 p.m. My back was very lame from bending over the specimens so long at a time without proper work table. Put some fish in formaldehyde- two or three species. Markman has put up a few bird skins, young birds, but has not yet obtained any mammals.

Big Thompson Creek, near Loveland. Monday June 11, 1906.

Markman collected a garter snake before the rest of us were up this morning. Nothing in his traps. After breakfast, Markman went at his traps again, Dodds looked after camp affairs, while Harry and I took the big dip net and began dipping for mollusks, but the creek was high and quite roilly, so we could see nothing, hence worked at a disadvantage. We collected quite a number of Ancylus, however, clinging to the rocks which we fished out with the net, and a few insect larva. The creek was rising so rapidly that we concluded to pack up and get off the island before the water got too deep for fording. This warm weather means water too high for stream collecting. We got off the island at 10 p.m. (sic). Then Dodds drove into town to make some purchases, while the rest of us continued work, but with little success. Bullock orioles very abundant in the timber here. Markman caught a pocket gopher. Harry caught several species of fish in small stream with the net. We saw hundreds of Frundulus sp. Congregated at the mouth of small stream where the clear water flowed into the turbid Big Thompson. Collected several. Also collected Planorbis parvus, Physa sp., Limnaea sp. And Pisidium sp. in same small stream. Found a portion of a Strophites or Anodonta shell there also. Left Loveland at 1:30. Collected carp, catfish and on((e)) specimen of Physa (perhaps P. virgata) in a small, filthy brook about two miles N of Loveland and some Planorbis trivolvis, P. parvus and Physa sp. in a lake further north where they were very abundant. Dodds and I went west on foot finally to what I thought was an outcrop of the Fossil Ridge sandstone, and found it was so. The wagon went on to Trilby school house and camped in a pasture between the school house and Fossil Ridge. Just as we turned into the pasture, in crossing a furrow, the right hind wheel dished and is a complete wreck. We unloaded, got a pole under the axle, and dragged the wagon to a camping place. Also broke another spring, the front one. All hands take it philosophically and are thankful that there are still three wheels on. Finished labelling specimens at 10 p.m. and retired.

Fossil Ridge, Trilby Schoolhouse June 12, 1906, Tuesday Arose at 6:15; got breakfast and had the wagon taken apart and ready to load on a lumber wagon to take to town at 9 p.m. (sic). Then I went to the fossil beds while Harry went for another wagon to go to town, Dodds started out with the plant press and Markman went to town. Either a heavy dew fog or a little rain in the night as things about camp were wet. Am inclined to think it may have been fog, as it evidently creeped into the tent. This morning clouds hung low on the mountains, with an east wind, hot in the sun when sheltered from the wind, but cool and refreshing in the shade exposed to the breeze. Found fine fossils by breaking up big concretions in afternoon, Harry swinging the big sledge. Received mail for the first time since starting. In the evening Dodds and Markman developed photos until 10 p.m. in dark room of blankets thrown over tripod in tent.

Wednesday June 13

Markman and Harry both complain of sour stomachs this morning. Took some soda and went without their breakfasts. Refreshing breeze this morning, from the northeast. I peeled potatoes, then chiseled out and wrapped fossils until breakfast. Started for fossil beds at 9:30 a.m. Collected fossils until about 4 p.m., without food or drink, then brought a sackful of smaller ones to camp and wrapped and packed about 150 of them. Collected about 200 specimens today, mostly small bivalves – Callista, Volsella and Pteria, selecting only the best Inoceramus to show variation- also a few Pinna and Scaphites nodosus. Hot all day when sheltered from the breeze.

Thursday June 14, 1906

Up at 6 a.m., got to fossil beds at 9:15; Harry going with me. We took a canteen of water and a little lunch this time. Not quite so hot as yesterday. L. C. Bragg came out from the Agricultural College and spent an hour or so. While he was with us it rained hard and we got soaked. Fossil Ridge appears to extend for at least a mile below (south) camp (or perhaps two) and a mile northeast, so far as we have observed it. The formation much resembles the Hygiene sandstone at Left Hand Creek, but is full of great concretions of sandstone with an outer coating of iron oxide. It dips to the eastward at a very low angle. This in weathering makes a sloping escarpment to the west, with a rise, followed by a gentle slope to the east. Facing the westward escarpment is the upper Niobrara escarpment skirting the foothills as at Little Thompson Creek. The concretions are filled with fossils, Inoceramus oblongus predominately, Callista sp. abundant, many Pinna lakesi and Baculites compressus, besides other species. A very similar sandstone ridge outcrops to the east half a mile or so.

Friday, June 15, 1906 Harry and I took a big load of fossils and some recent mollusca, fungi and bird and mammal skins to Ft. Collins, packed and shipped them. Had great difficulty finding suitable boxes. Sent four big boxes by freight and one by express. Then got running gear of wagon and reached camp at 5 p.m., very tired. Has been a very hot day.

Saturday June 16, 1906

Mosquitos (sic) have been very troublesome at Trilby camp, particularly from 6 p.m. to 9 pm. Have not been bothered much by them except between those hours except at the alkali flat south of Little Thompson where they swarmed as we passed through both morning and evening. Their presence is especially noticeable in the neighborhood of alfalfa fields. Very hot morning. We set the wagon bed and top on running gear (a difficult undertaking without proper blocking etc.) and broke camp about 11 a.m. taking roads leading S and E for Greeley. I hastily examined the ridge paralleling Fossil Ridge to the east and found it to quite strongly resemble the materials of Fossil Ridge, but the concretions are not as rounded. Found a single fossil – apparently a young Inoceramus oblongus. Harry and I examined a very small, swampy lakelet N of the head of Poudre Valley Reservoir and found Limnaea sp., Physa sp., Planorbis trivolvis and P. parvus. These occurred in large numbers in the outlet of the lakelet. It was a great breeding place for water fowl and yellow headed blackbirds. In Poudre Valley Reservoir found no mollusks, but picked up three dead shells of Planorbis trivolvis on the beach. Saw an American avocet, black crowned night herons, and 9 great blue herons. We discovered that the tire of the new wheel which we obtained at Ft. Collins was not properly shrunken on, so the wheel is weak and we must drive with care, especially as the roads are abominably rough. Also discovered that the new front spring is weak, – nearly broken through one leaf. We blocked this up and went on. Markman shot two young night herons or bitterns at a lake south of Poudre valley Reservoir and we saw others. In a marsh we saw several Wilson’s phalaropes. Near Windsor we crossed what I believe is Fox Hills sandstone, dipping to east. Found no identifiable fossils. At Windsor, on N side of Cache La Poudre, we bought provisions, then went on to some bluffs about 4 miles down the river and camped. Had a little rain in afternoon accompanied by wind and lightning. For a mile or two E and W of Windsor it appeared to have rained hard.

Below Windsor, Sunday, June 17, 1906

Had a very windy night. I slept in the wagon last night and night before, Harry going into the tent. Cloudy this morning and windy. I prepared and catalogued the mollusks collected yesterday, then read papers and magazines received at Ft. Collins Friday. Harry and Dodds started down the valley soon after breakfast. It sprinkled at intervals, and finally, at 1:30 p.m., rained hard, continuing for half an hour or so, and sprinkling for some time later. Harry and Dodds came in drenched to the skin and we had dinner at 3 p.m. After dinner, I walked across to the bluffs S of the creek and found about 125 Veniella humilis, some Cardium speciosum, Mactra sp., Pholodomya sp. and other fossils in limestone concretions near base of the exposure and Placenticeras sp., Cardium speciosum, shark teeth, fish vertebrae and scales, Mactra sp., Tellina sp., Ostrea sp., Fucoides, etc. in the upper part of the exposure. The lower part of the exposure may be Pierre but the upper part is the typical greenish-yellow Fox Hills sandstone as is exposed below White Rock, with large concretions of sandstone with iron cement, flaking off horizontally in large scales practically the size of the concretions. The sandstone is quite soft, easily excavated with a knife. The Ostrea were well preserved, though thin, and valves were easily freed from sand on both sides with the knife. The other fossils were friable, the shell crumbling, leaving only casts. Some of the Mactra are very fine. The lower part of the exposure consists of alternating strata of thin bedded clay shales and sandstones, with limestone concretions from 3 to 6 feet in diameter. The Veniella broke out readily in large numbers from some of the weathered concretions, and more confined to concretions to concretions in a somewhat definite zone and to a narrow zone in each concretion. The whole formation looks horizontal when viewed from the north, but an east or west view of a north and south section shows a strong southerly dip.

Monday, June 18, 1906

Harry and I worked on the Paleontology of the Fox Hills sandstone, getting some fine specimens, While Dodds took care of his plants and Markman skinned birds. Had a hasty lunch at noon and started for Greeley at 1:30 where we arrived at 4:30 – 12 miles or more. Saw Jim Bartlett and Judge Southard, interviewed blacksmith, bought some supplies, got our mail and went into camp on the Cache la Poudre, at what is said to be City Park. It looks more like a private driving park, the only improvements being a race track, pavilion and stables. The other men printed and developed velox postal cards in the evening. County Attorney Carpenter and another attorney (cousin of Harry, name forgotten) called on us and promised us a map and letters to ranchers north and northeast of here. Has been clear and hot today.

Tuesday, June 19, 1906 The other three went to town to get supplies and have the wagon repaired. As the load is evidently too heavy for the wagon, they took the 10 gauge gun and ammunition, the cots, two suit cases and some other things to leave with Max Clark until our return, in order to lighten. I have cleared up all the dishes, compacted our load dredged the stream, which is very muddy here (finding a single dead Planorbis bicarinatus and one poor valve of a Pisidium) and now (11:30) have everything ready to load on the wagon as soon as it arrives. We will probably feed the horses, eat a hasty lunch, and start. I find we have lost my box containing fine dissecting, egg blowing and other instruments, fossils and mollusk catalogue, mollusk boxes etc. a serious loss. (Found later). We left Greeley at 2:30, changing our route for a longer trip. Drove through Eaton to Ault , arriving at latter place at 7 p.m.. Had a cold piercing gale all afternoon and were chilled with our slickers on. Camped at edge of town.

Wednesday June 20, 1906

Left Ault at 7:50 going north. Intended to drive past Boyd’s Big Springs, but missed the ranch. Drove through another ranch where there were water holes then on to the NE for Eastman’s Lake. Roads generally much better than from Boulder to Greeley. Occasional pass over hills covered with water worn debris from the mountains just like the mesa caps near Boulder, but not flat. Intermittent channels are also strewn with boulders and gravel and the soil generally sandy but hard. Saw plover with young, doves, horned larks, meadow larks, burrowing owls and lark buntings. At 1 p.m. we arrived at Spee’s homestead a mile west of where Eastman’s Reservoir is placed on our map and were informed that the reservoir is fully 7 miles further east, so we cut it out and started up Owl Creek for Slayton’s Ranch, that also being incorrectly mapped as being on Eastman Creek. Collected Physa at ranch 2 miles S of Slayton’s and reached Slayton’s at 6 p.m.

Thursday June 21, 1906

Harry and Markman obtained a team and light wagon from Slayton and started back for Eastman’s Reservoir this morning and Dodds and I took our wagon and started for Chalk Bluffs ((underline added later)). Had to drive over rough prairie for three miles, with no road, but fortunately found wire fence down and thus arrived some distance. We both walked several miles, Dodds went ahead and found the spring in a ravine in the bluffs. Camped, got dinner at 1:30 and started East on foot to examine formation at 2:15. First visited the isolated conglomerate butte a couple of miles east of camp. Conglomerate consists of pebbles of granite and other igneous rocks, limestone, sandstone, quartz, agate etc., very similar to those we have found lying on the prairie all day yesterday, but here cemented with a highly calcareous cement. This suggests the former extension of the formation southward and eastward, the loose pebbles being residue from the decomposition of the conglomerate and the washing away of the softer and finer portions. The conglomerate is not generally very well set, crumbling readily under the hammer, with a disagreeable odor somewhat resembling dog fennel, very irritating to the nostrils. It is about 60 ft. in thickness overlying the soft calcareous mud which characterizes the formation in general, the latter, with some harder bands, extending as deeply as erosion has reached- certainly not less than 100 ft. The conglomerate is strongly cross bedded in places, and some of the pebbles are 6 or 8 inches in diameter, though it is mostly coarse sand and gravel. Am unable to correlate this bed with any of the conglomerates in the bluff proper, though it may represent the cap of the bluffs, which is, generally speaking, thoroughly disintegrated leaving only beds of pebbles etc. In the bluffs east of camp where our informants, messrs Carpenter and Baker had indicated fossils on the map and told us they stood out prominently in vast numbers, we found only peculiar concretions, several inches in horizontal diameter and sometimes several feet in vertical dimensions, forming all sorts of peculiar shapes and sometimes running into each other, weathering horizontally into terraces of from 2 to 10 feet in height and vertically into fantastic shapes, often resembling bones of large animals. They are much harder than the formation in general and the terracing suggests their segregation by waters moving along planes represented by the terraces. True bedding planes are not noticeable where the formation has become entirely concretionary and even in many other places the formation is massive, but in other places it is well stratified. We returned to camp at 4:30 and busied ourselves about camp. Harry and Markman came in just before dark on foot and very tired. We saw them crossing the prairie and had a hot supper of fried ham and potatoes ready for them and us. After dark we loaded plateholders and got to bed at 10:30. Harry and Markman got nothing except some fossil wood and cannonball concretions.

Friday, June 22, 1906

Got up at 6 a.m., shaved and took some pictures before the others were up. Harry not very well. After breakfast Dodds and I started west, over the terraces. Found the thick conglomerate of Conglomerate Butte outcropping in a number of places, but not at all continuous through the entire formation. In one exposure W of camp giving nearly a complete section it is entirely wanting, while on the next butte east it is well developed. To the northward of the latter it is seen on the first hills but not beyond. A thinner bed lower down seems more continuous here, but it plays out a short distance to the west. Some of the numerous terraces throughout the formation are conglomeratic but most of them are concretionary. Marls greatly predominate, quite soft except in concretions, effervescing strongly under acid throughout, including conglomerate. Numerous caverns are formed under overhanging ledges by dissolution of the marl beneath the conglomerate. In one place a cavern extended 18 feet back and numerous chimneys admitted storm waters, making underground drainage for some distance. Streams are sand creeks, water from springs disappearing at once, flood waters from storms choked with sand, forming almost flat beds, with steep walls, almost perpendicular. In one place a strong conglomerate passes within three or four feet into marl, with no signs of faulting. Beds are approximately horizontal, but in one place on escarpment the thick conglomerate shows a decided dip to SE. However it appears to have pitched forward into that position. W of camp there is a decided unconformity between the thick conglomerate and the marl. At first sight this seemed possibly the result of the conglomerate pressing into the soft mud, but the strata above continuing unbroken and straight vetoes this idea unless the boulders and gravel pressed in as they were deposited ((drawing in field book)). At the NW (lefthand end of section) conglomerate rapidly passes into marl, not by thinning out, but by intercalation of strata of marl between narrow strata of conglomerate. Here as elsewhere, the line dividing the conglomerate from the underlying marl is abrupt, no gradation. The two places in above section marked by circles are occupied at base by boulders. In many places the conglomerate as well as the marl are concretionary. Went down to the conglomerate butte east of camp about 11 a.m. and photographed it and the concretions north of it. Broke camp at 2 p.m. and arrived at deserted ranch west of Gault P.O. at 6 p.m. where we went into camp. After supper several neighboring ranchers called at camp, including A. B. Hilton, to whom I had letters of introduction from Herbert Baker and Chas. E Southard. Wind blew all night last night and for a while this morning, shaking the wagon in which I slept. About noon it rained at intervals and on the road to Gault it rained and hailed hard several times, with a cold, disagreeable northeast wind. Harry and I went home with Mr. Hilton to see his specimens, and at 9 p.m. it was raining hard and very dark so we remained all night.

Saturday, June 23, 1906

Arose at 5:30 a.m. and Harry and I started for camp with fresh milk and eggs which Mr. Hilton gave us. Very cold northeast wind. Cloudy. Broke camp at 8:35 a.m. and started east Reaching Grover on the B and M RR at 3 p.m. a distance of 16 miles in 6 hours and 25 minutes. We had a cold head wind and rain all the way and poor roads. Camped in the lee of the school house barn at Grover and turned horses into school yard. We were all wet and thoroughly chilled. Had a good dinner of salmon loaf covered with peas, then went to store, then built a fire in the camp stove at entrance of tent and sat somewhat comfortably in the tent. All retired at 8 p.m.

Sunday June 24, 1906

Rained nearly all night, quite hard at times. Hard wind part of the night. Sun shining this morning but still cloudy, wind changed to westerly. Rained again while we were getting breakfast of mush and milk and crackers. At 10:30 we started to move camp. Very heavy roads. Had occasion to reprove Harry for his impatience and loss of temper. I walked all the way from Grover. Dodds and I left the trail about 5 miles from Grover and examined the bluffs north of the road. The formation appears to be the same as the base of the Chalk Bluffs but the escarpment is more nearly vertical, instead of being so markedly terraced by conglomerates and concretionary bands. The upper part of the bluffs, however, are irregularly concretionary and in many places the underlying marls have assumed a whitish color and are very soft, the irregularity of the white band s strongly resembling unconformity, the dividing lines being very abrupt. The debris slope is a gently curve to the south, as at Chalk Bluffs, winding ravines 10 to 25 ft. in depth, with steep walls extending out for a mile or so until they shallow to nothingness, leaving the prairie beyond free from ravines. All slopes of marked grade, however, are terraced, the terraces being a few inches in height, making the best travelling along the beds of the swales below the terrace line. The bluffs here have a decided tendency to weather into circular towers with nearly vertical walls. The ravines leading out through the debris slope generally have flat bottoms, but in one or two there was a secondary ravine perhaps caused by the washing out of cattle trail along the center. We reached camp at Davis ranch at 5:30, much sooner than we expected. Are camped in one of the ravines which extends back into the bluffs. Loaded plateholders after dark

Monday June 25, 1906

Got up early and went to work. I worked all day in the hot sun and found nothing worth bringing in. At noon Dodds brought in a good fossil jaw bone and some teeth. Is not yet in this evening (5:30). Formation here resembles Chalk Bluffs, but the conglomerates are composed more largely of waste of underlying rocks with less debris from the mountains. Am terribly fatigued with so much hard climbing and being on my feet since 6 a.m., so gave up at 5:30. Dodds came in at 6 p.m. with nothing more. Harry arrived at 8 p.m. with part of a jaw and Markman came later. It rained after Markman arrived, wind north. Had mush and milk for supper.

Tuesday, June 26, 1906

I started west with Dodds and Harry and worked along the cliffs. At last point of the bluffs but one to the west Dodds found a small turtle in clay about 1/3 of way to top and we chiseled it out ((.)) around the point to northeastward he found a portion of a jawbone in about the same horizon and near by I found a turtle. We got out the former but the latter was too badly shattered. Further east in the base of the conglomerate I found another turtle and Dodds and I worked on it until 6 p.m., when we had it uncovered for 3 ft in length and 2 « in width and quit for the night. It is on the hanging wall, where the conglomerate overhangs so we may not be able to extract him. The formation is not favorable to extraction. Near where we got the first turtle we encountered a beautiful little spotted adder as we walked along a narrow ledge. Harry was in advance. I passed him the big gloves and the cyanide bottle and we collected the snake. Further along I killed a big rattlesnake, the first one I have seen on this trip. Mockingbirds are common here, as also the Arkansas kingbird, Say phoebe, barn and cliff swallows, white throated swifts and meadowlarks. Harry had some rhubarb pies made and Markman had a salmon loaf ready when Dodds and I arrived in camp, very tired. Has been a very hot day with a few fleecy clouds.

Wednesday, June 27, 1906

Arose at 6 a.m. Hot morning. Dodds and I went work on the fossil turtle, while Harry started to hunt the missing mare and Dodds ((Markman?)) skinned birds. Harry got Mr. Davis to hunt the mare and joined us at 1 p.m. We got the turtle nearly cut out, resting with carapace downward on a pinnacle of rock at 5:30 and began pasting cheesecloth around it, starting for camp at 6:30. Wind blew all afternoon, filling our eyes with dust as we worked and making it very disagreeable. Found the mare at camp when we returned and Markman had supper ready. It was very hard work digging in cramped quarters all afternoon.

Thursday June 28, 1906

Not quite so hot this morning on account of cool easterly breeze. Sun very bright. Yesterday morning with a very heavy load, including 1 gallon of water, camp bottle of paste, bolt of cheese cloth in camp pack, big pick, heavy hammer, light picks, chisels boards etc. It took Dodds and me 1 ¬ hours to walk over here. This morning with 1 two quart canteen of water and a few crackers I walked it in 45 minutes. The turtle is near the base of concretionary stratum at top of cliff. The others soon joined me and we padded beneath the fossil all around with a moss like chickweed and the tender young shoots of mountain mahogany. Then while the three steadied the fossil I chipped away the supporting pinnacle. It dropped easily onto the cushion just as we had planned. We easily turned it over. Then Dodds started to Grover to order lumber and sawdust, Harry started to look at his mammal traps and Markman and I finished encasing the turtle in tissue paper, cheesecloth and gunny sacks, completing this at 11 a.m. Then we began prospecting for more fossils. Came in at 3:30, had a lunch and then I went to work collecting, pinning and labeling insects, while Markman and Harry went out for birds. Harry caught a hairy tailed rat in his traps. Twas fairly cool in the morning, exceedingly hot in the afternoon and just before sundown a wind too cool for comfort sprang up. Markman killed a rattlesnake. We average about one a day. Brewer’s blackbird is common here. There are hundreds of abandoned hawks nests in these cliffs and many still in use. Last night Dodds left his collecting bag at the big turtle and this morning the shoulder strap was eaten through by small rodents. They did not injure the straps of the camp pack nor the paste, which latter was in a bottle covered with gunnysacks, nor did they nibble the layers of cheese cloth pasted on the fossil. Friday, June 29, 1906

Dodds and Markman took the wagon around to the fossil turtle this morning, while Harry and I walked across the hill, examining his traps and collecting insects on the way. Found two rates in traps. We boxed the turtle with the two inch planks which Dodds got yesterday, sawing the planks with my small trimming saw. We used the dry moss-like plants of the vicinity for packing, graded a road on the face of the cliff just below the conglomeratic shelf, to a point where the debris slope was smooth, then let it down to where we could back the wagon up to an embankment and loaded it on the wagon. Harry and Markman then took it to Grover for shipment, finding that it weighed 640 pounds as boxed. Dodds and I collected plants and insects on our way to camp. At camp I took a bath and changed my underwear and shirt, then labelled and pinned about 75 insects finishing at 8:45 p. m., while Dodds was getting supper ready to go into the stove. The boys came with the wagon at 9 p.m., and a few moments afterwards we had a good supper- salmon loaf covered with peas and crackers, cake and cocoa. The last few days have been altogether too strenuous. We are all sore and tired and very thankful the big turtle is off our hands.

Saturday June 30, 1906

Left camp without load in wagon at 9 a.m.. Reached Pawnee Buttes at 12:30, via Joe Dolan’s place. Fed horses and ate lunch , then went on SE. Markman found fossil jaw bone at the West Butte. Formation about the same as at Davis ranch. Below buttes country more cut up by erosion than valley at Davis’ but no dissected escarpment. We passed Martha Sebosky’s shack on the way to Fitche’s and as Hilton had urged, we made a very hasty search for fossil teeth but found none. Then went to Fitche’s where we arrived at 4:40 and did no work. Started back by a more southerly route. The formation around Martha Sebosky’s has a decided tendency to change from yellowish to whitish, passing rather abruptly from one to the other and the upper part is emphatically a sandstone. (By the way, the formation where we dug out the turtle put an abrupt point on the picks in digging.)

Sunday, July 1, 1906

Sprinkled at breakfast time, then cleared with steady northerly wind. We left camp in gulch at Davis ranch at 9:15, going a mile or so south to Jackson ranch. Then southwesterly over rolling prairie for Crow Creek. Crossed B & MRR where Sligo once was. There is not a building now or even a sidetrack at the lagoon near a cabin ((.)) about 10 miles S of Grover is a ledge of quartz sandstone. Here we collected some red evening primroses a species new to me. About two miles further on we saw three antelopes, the only ones yet seen on the trip except one east of Slayton’s, I believe. Near a lagoon 15 miles SE of Grover, while collecting batrachians, we saw another antelope, a doe. Most common bird is the shore lark, next the lark bunting, a few meadowlarks and plover. Harry killed a fine American Rough-legged hawk. Saw first dove at Crow Creek. Came 25 miles today over a rolling prairie road which did not pass a fence or inhabited house, with only a single buggy track made since last Sunday’s storm, and saw but one person after leaving Jackson’s ranch- a solitary horseman some distance from the road. Road good much of the way, but crossing many wide lagoon-like stretches which were particularly bad. In Crow Creek we find water in frequent waterholes, separated by a few feet of moist ground, inhabited by Sphaerium, Physa, Planorbis, crayfish, frogs, fish (Fundulus) etc., banks lined with fine willows and a few cottonwoods. Reached here at 4:30. Find magpies here and mocking big (sic). Before supper we found a place where Sphaerium are very abundant, and in addition collected two species of Physa and Planorbis trivolvis, P. bicarinatus, and P. parvus. Also found turtles, green water beetles and leeches. Rained at dark and continued for some time after we retired.

Monday, July 2, 1906

Examined the creek bluffs below camp. At the top is a zone several (4 or 5) ft. in thickness of bituminous shale containing abundant plant fragments, underlaid by white sandstone all badly weathered and very soft, containing iron concretions. Below this is a hard stratum of sandstone a foot or two thick, which presents a strangely krinkled appearance on its weathered surfaces. Strong north wind makes work disagreeable. I found an ironstone concretion containing gasteropods resembling Vivipara and some bivalves resembling Corbicula and collected 70 and Harry found a stratum at the dam and collected therefrom 110 bivalves of two or more species. We then had lunch, fed the team and started down creek. On the way down I collected 40 more at the same place where Harry had worked while the others were looking at hawks nests. About 7 to 9 miles further down creek found a heronry and discovered an outcrop from which I took 75 specimens of Ostrea glabra and Corbicula, making a total of 400 specimens for the day. Also found a ledge containing many gasteropoda, so we went a mile down creek where we could get water from a well and camped. Have seen no water in creek since leaving last camp. Road has followed creek and is poor, with many gates. The fossils collected today have been fine. Pleasant this evening.

Tuesday, July 3, 1906

Arose at 5:30, had breakfast and Harry and I started for the fossil beds at 7:20. Markman and Dodds joined us at 10:30 and by 11 a.m. we had 756 specimens. The wagon was all loaded and Markman and Dodds started to drive down west side of Crow Creek, while Harry and I walked a couple of miles on east side and then joined the wagon. Reached Greeley at 5 p.m. boxed and shipped the plants, fossils etc. and drove north one mile to cache la Poudre to camp. Had a good beefsteak supper with bread, the first we have had for a long time. I am puzzled about the formation at last night’s camp. O. glabra, Viviparus (sic) and one specimen of Physa indicates Laramie but some of the other species look marine to me, which would indicate Fox Hills. At the brow of the gentle slope are great quantities of Ostrea glabra and fragments of some other bivalve broken from iron concretions and “cone-in-cone”. In one place large numbers of gasteropods were broken from iron concretions. Down the hill some distance is a perfect mass of bivalves of several species, including a few gasteropods which I take for Viviparus. A short distance to the south a gulch has exposed what appears to be typical Laramie white sandstone containing “cannonball” concretions. As we found no other exposures except recent I am compelled suspect that this locality, though said to be 18 miles from Greeley, is the place called 15 NE of Greeley in the reports, from which ten or more Laramie species have been described. Has been a fine day but the air feels decidedly frosty tonight.

Wednesday July 4, 1906

People were passing along the road until midnight, and most of them Halloed as they passed the camp. At 5 a.m. they began passing again on way to Greeley to take early excursion trains for Boulder and Eaton to see the Fourth of July celebration. Now 8:30 a.m. and Markman is just dressing while Harry is still in bed. We had the cots again which we left in Greeley on our way north two weeks ago. Packed for shipment some of the outfit which we will not need again and left Greeley at noon, passing through Evans, then crossing Platte to east side, recrossing to west side about 7 miles from Evans at the Twin Bridge. We camped at 4:30 on Big Thompson (S. side), two or three miles below mouth of Little Thompson. While Dodds and Markman made a dry camp in a pasture, getting water from an nearby farm house, Harry and I started to examine the bluffs north of the creek, wading across. The formation is typical Fox Hills sandstone. Found Cardium speciosum, shark tooth and other fossil mollusks at base of exposure. Near the top I found fossil leaves which I at first took for Laramie species, and above it found numbers of Ostrea glabra, but a thorough search brought to light a single specimen of Cardium speciosum in the upper stratum so that settled its Fox Hills age. Reached camp at 6:30 and had pea soup, canned salmon and bread and butter, with peaches.

Thursday, July 5, 1906

At 6 a.m. I went to the stream with the big net looking for mollusks, but found none except some small Physas and Planorbis parvus. Reached the wagon at 7:30. Breakfast was ready. We got the wagon loaded and started at 9:20. Reached mouth of St. Vrain 5 miles distant at 10 a.m. and explored the Fox Hills deposits there. At the top we found a coarse conglomerate, some of the pebbles derived from the mountains measuring two or three inches in diameter. Beneath that a few feet is a two foot stratum composed almost entirely of Ostrea sp., with a sandstone matrix. The greater part of the beds are typical Fox Hills sandstone, with long concretions such as those at White Rocks, and other more tabular and extensive one which cause the formation to weather into broad-capped pinnacles. Found a few fish vertebra and some fine fucoids. Lower down, Markman and Harry found a number of species. At the base of the river cliffs are intercalated strata of shales which may be Pierre. Left there at 1:45 p.m. Reached Longmont 18 or 20 miles away at 6:30 p.m. Two livery men refused us hay and W. H. Diebens refused to allow us to camp in an unoccupied pasture, the first such refusal we have met. Camped in another pasture across on the S side of creek and W side of road. Finished supper at 9 oclock (sic).

Thursday (sic) July 6, 1906

Left Longmont at 7:35 – reached Boulder at 11:45 a.m.

Arapahoe Glacier Trip 1906

Aug 31, 1906 Friday

Left Boulder at 9:30 a.m. on narrow guage (sic) accompanied by Sievert Rohwer, Mrs. Cockerell, Prof. Daniels, of ((left blank)), Miss McCoy, Miss Sheldon and her father. Clear morning but clouds more or less by traintime. Stormed after leaving Bluebird mine. Reached Eldora at 1 p.m, got dinner at Gold Miner Hotel, then went up gulch collecting mollusca. Found Zonitoides arboreus very abundant under logs in quaking aspens, a few Vitrina pfeifferi, some Vallonia cyalophorella, one juvenile Agriolimax, probably the black form of campestris. At Hessie found quite a number of Pisidium sp., varying from nearly central beaks to posterior beaks, covered with iron rust and very closely resembling the sand in which they are found. It threatened storm during early afternoon, but cleared toward evening. Called up Mrs. Rohwer after supper and found Nellie was no better, threatened with tonsillitis.

Saturday Sept 1, 1906

It rained toward morning and blew hard all night. Mrs. Gardiner arrived on the night train at 11 p.m. We were all up at 5:30 a.m., had breakfast at 6 a.m., but did not get our horses until 7 p.m. (sic), got away at 8:20 a.m. for peak, Mrs.(sic) Sheldon, Mrs. Cockerell and Miss McCoy riding in carriage with John Lilly, driver, and the others on horseback. Reached shaft house of 4th of July Mine at 10 a.m. Sievert and I reached saddle ahead of others, took our pictures, then I went down into glacial cirque, Sievert, Mrs. Gardiner, Miss McCoy, Miss Sheldon and Mrs. Cockerell coming down later. Found considerable shrinkage on the north side, the ice being 20 feet from the big boulder on the north moraine, very noticeable shrinkage on the south side, none just west of the terminal lake. The crevasses were pretty well filled with fresh last year’s snow except the larger ones. When we again reached the rim of the cirque, Sievert and Miss McCoy went to the top . We were caught in snow and rain and on the way down it rained hard most of the way. We were all soaked. Had supper about 7:15 p.m. Then I called Mrs. Rohwer and found Nellie was no better, so I will go down on the morning train.

Marshall, Colo. Feby 9, 1907

Drove out at 9:30 with Dr. Ramaley, G. S. Dodds and Sievert Rohwer. On the bluff about due S of Marshall Station , near the bluff line and East of the steep point we collected a lot of fossil leaves of various species. They were where excavations for coal had been made. SW of the station, west of the bluff point in an old open cut in the hillside we found large numbers of large fossil leaves which I take for a species of Ficus (fig.) Reached home at 6:30

Four miles N of Boulder, Colo. Feby 12, 1907

Sievert and Frank Rohwer and I started at 9:45. Drove to where private road crosses the mesa about 3 « miles N of Boulder and there left the rig. Where the private road crosses the Hygiene sandstone (Pierre Cretaceous) in the SW ¬ of Sec. 6, Tp. 1N, R 70 WW., we found a fossiliferous zone about 30 feet from top of exposure; 1 Baculites ovatus, 15 Inoceramus sp., a fragment of wood, some seaweeds ? and worm or mollusk burrows. Above and below this horizon the sandstone seemed barren, except for apparent seaweeds. N of the gulch which cuts this mesa off on the north and about 200 to 300 yards east of the west line of section 6, consequently beneath the Hygiene sandstone, we found numerous Baculites, perhaps both ovatus and compressus, and Inoceramus barabini. Traced this horizon northeastward for half a mile or so . The strike here is northeastward and the dip southwestward, hence Hygiene sandstone here makes a NE-SW ridge, but near N line of section it turns northward. In the gully on N side of a gulch in NE ¬ Sec 6, perhaps 300 yds W of ranch and section line fence, consequently above Hygiene sandstone, I found 3 small specimens of Scaphites nodosus. Along the north fence of the mesa in SW ¬ sec 6 and 200 to 300 yards W of east line of section, 40 or 50 ft. below top of exposure we found a calcareous sandstone a few inches in thickness containing large numbers of Inoceramus vanuxemi. Collected about 40 specimens. Beneath this was a horizon containing I. Sagensis in which I found a cephalopod which is puzzling me and a fossil which I cannot place at all, even as to family. The two last mentioned horizons remind me of those bearing similar relations about a mile SW of there. In a higher horizon, just E of the W line of sec 5 we found a fine lot of Inoceramus barabini, many with the sulcus upon which Whitfield founded the genus Eudoceras, with a few I. sagensis and I. vanuxemi and numbers of Ostrea inornata. Feby 17, 1907

Sievert Rohwer and I walked out to the same place to make sure of localities in afternoon and found them correct. Just S of N line of SW ¬ SW ¬ Sec 5, Tp 1 N, R. 70 W., and E of the fossil locality in that quarter section we found a 2 ft. bed of conglomerate consisting of mountain debris and angular fragments of Hygiene sandstone apparently cemented by a calcareous infiltration, at the base of the mesa boulder cap and resting directly upon Pierre shales. East of there, in about the NW cor of NW ¬ NE ¬ Sec 8, Tp. 1 N, R. 70 W., we found a sandstone much resembling the Hygiene, dipping SE but dip slight, on N face of mesa. Found a few fragments of Ostrea and Inoceramus, undeterminable, former turned up sharply at sides and attached to the latter, much resembling O. congesta from the Niobrara. This may be the equivalent of the sandstone in the pasture NE of Haystack Butte, as well as the one found by us today in the SE corn of NE ¬ NE ¬ or NE cor SE ¬ NE ¬ sec. 7 Tp 1 N., R. 70 W in N edge of gulch near E line of section. This supposition would make it strike nearly the same as the underlying Hygiene sandstone.

N of Boulder, Feby 22, 1907

Sievert Rohwer and I went out on horseback to sketch in the map E of W line sec. 7 Tp. 1 N., R. 70 W., E of little house in adjoining sec. Found Hygiene sandstone very steep, but it flattens as it passes over Four Mile Mesa to the north, this accounting for widening of outcrop. In SE ¬ sec. 6 we collected Heteroceras sp., Ancycloceras tricostatus, Lucina occidentalis, Inoceramus barabini, and sagensis etc. in gulch at station 7 in sec. 6 Tp 1N R 71W.

N of Boulder Feby 23, 1907

Sievert Rohwer, Frank Rohwer and I went north today, collected fossils. In sandstone at Station 8, sec 7 Tp 1 N R 70 W found I. vanuxemi, I barabini and I. sagensis in poor condition and 1 B. cf. compressus just at W line of section and about intersection with E and W « of section line. Bluff E of there station 3 sec 8 contained I. sagensis in limestone concretions. Bluff is sandy in black shale. In lateral gulch at station 4 SE cor NE ¬ SW ¬ Sec 8 we found I. barabini and sagensis. Dip all SE gentle. Found sandstone again at station 6 NE cor NW ¬ SE ¬ Sec. 8. E of there clay is yellow. On S front of Four Mile Mesa Hygiene sandstone reaches W line sec. 6 Tp 1 N R 70 W. On N slope of mesa it trends rapidly to the northeast. In the NE ¬ SE ¬ sec. 6 Tp 1 N R 70 W the upper part of the Pierre exposure on N slope of mesa weathers yellowish.

Denver, Colo., Mch 2. 1907

Prof. Geo. L. Cannon and I went out to the creek S of Cheltenham Schoolhouse in West Denver. The creek is locally known as Dry Creek, but to distinguish it from a dozen other “dry Creeks” Cannon proposes the name Green Mountain Creek as its tributaries find their sources in Green Mountain, a foothill to the west. In the street south of the schoolhouse at the SE corner of the schoolyard we found a new trench 8 feet deep which did not reach bed rock , while a short distance E the Denver sandstone came to the surface. Then a little further it dropped again. The first mentioned drop was evidently a lateral gulch, while the other was the original bluffs of the South Platte Valley, which was afterward filled by the river and since excavated again by the same stream. At Green Mountain Creek we found original bluffs of the north side of a valley, perhaps 100 ft. in depth, which was afterwards filled by stream action, and has since been excavated by the creek. Quere, was the filling done by the creek or by the Platte or by joint action of both. I found no break between the deposit and the undoubted river deposit downstream toward the mouth of the creek. Cannon has not found any Denver sandstone south of the present creek channel cutting it from the river channel, from which it may be inferred that it was part of the original channel. The character of the deposit, too, is more in accord with the idea of deposition by flood waters of a large stream. Prof. Cannon, however, says that long observation teaches him that there is a vague, indescribable, indefinable difference between the intercalated gravel beds in Green Mt. Creek valley and those in the main valley. If the deposits are distinct in origin, the gravels of the Platte deposits should contain elements derived from South Platte Canyon which could not well occur in Green Mountain debris. These gravel beds are local, irregular and usually of small extent so far as my observation today goes. The original Denver sandstone bluffs were irregular in outline and deeply incised by lateral gulches. Three former land surfaces were usually discernable: 1) The Denver sandstone, very irregular. 2) A sort of loessoid deposit containing occasional pebbles of fair size suspended somewhat regularly sloping down toward the present bed of the valley. 3) Loose material plainly derived the higher ground in the nature of talus thus ((drawing in field book)). The talus was thinnest above thickening down slope. The Denver beds were massive above with few joints, more argillaceous and thinner bedded below, thoroughly jointed by irregular joints shown by weathered surfaces. It struck me that these lower deposits showed origin similar to the river deposits. The pebbles and small boulders contained in these river deposits as well as in the loessoid were usually rounded, with some flattish surfaces and sometimes angular, suggesting transportation some distance at a time by strong floods without much wear, as often occurs nowadays. The pebbles left on the surface by wind erosion are of quartz, hornblende rock, andesite etc. – mountain debris. Throughout this plains region erosion and deposition have frequently progressed with terrific rapidity during great storms. Prof, cannon showed me one place where a gulch about 50 ft. in depth was cut through the loessoid and river deposits, to bedrock (Denver sandstone), by a single storm NE of Cheltenham Schoolhouse. At brick kiln in S bluff of Green Mt. Creek we visited place from which Cannon, Bethel and Marvin had sent Quaternary fossils and collected Pupilla muscorum, which were abundant in one stratum, Vallonia gracillicosta, Succinea grosvenori and 2 specimens of Lymnaea sp. The latter had not been seen by me before. We did not find Planorbis parvus, which Cannon had found there. In a lateral gulch, in West bluffs of the Platte, NE of Cheltenham schoolhouse, we found one larger specimen of Succinea grosvenori in deposits of aeolian origin probably, as the opposite bluff of the gulch is undoubtedly aeolian. Well up the hill N of the latter point a street cut exposed acqueous deposits dipping SE perhaps 6 or 8 degrees or more, and quite regular in stratification. Does this indicate folding in recent times. N of Boulder, Colo., Apl 5/07 Drove north in morning, taking Frank Rohwer and Clinton Fullen with me. Visited station 2, sec 12 Tp 1 N R 70 W and found some poorly preserved Inoceramus sp. and fragments of Baculites sp. This station is some distance above the base of the Pierre group, instead of being at the base as I had supposed. W of this station I found the boulder cap of the mesa cemented into a conglomerate by a calcareous cement, as at station 3, sec 5 tp 1 N, R 70 W. Of course this being W of the Hygiene sandstone there are no Hygiene fragments, as at sta. 3 in sec. 5. We then went N to the “paper” shales, collected some I. labiatus, a shark tooth and 2 specimens of the undescribed cephalopod which I collected N of Left Hand in the Benton Cretaceous. In the Niobrara shales, just above the basal limestone, we found the Inoceramus deformis greatly flattened, except one or two specimens. This may have been due to pressure, but it did not appear to be. They are in a yielding shale. Thence we took the road connecting the roads along the E and W lines of Secs. 30 and 31 and near where it connects with the E section road, not far below the Hygiene sandstone I found a sea urchin, Baculites ovatus, Inoceramus barabini and Heteroceras sp. ((end of notebook 1))

1 Field Notes of Junius Henderson-notebook 1

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