Field Notebook 3 transcription

Field Notes of Junius Henderson. Transcribed by Peter Robinson, 2001. comments in double parentheses (( )) added by PR, and parenthetical statements by Henderson in the notebook itself are in single parentheses ( ). I have translated all his “+” marks to “and”, have written (sic) after words where I think there are grammatical/spelling errors, have italicized the Linnaean names, and have placed an interrogation (?) where I am not sure of the orthography.

((Note book 3))

Boulder, Colo., Jany 26, 1909

Bright, windy morning, 40˚ at 7 a. m. Went to University for receipt book, etc. Then took 11:30 train for Ft. Collins, reaching there at 1:15. Went to Northern Hotel, got lunch ordered team for tomorrow at Tate’s and spent balance of day reading and writing. Retired at 8:45.

Ft. Collins, Jany 27, 1909

Arose at 5:45. Left hotel at 7 a.m. with team and driver from Tate’s. Cloudy and cold, east wind, clearing and warming toward noon. Took Rocky Ridge road. Saw big flock blackbirds, numerous horned larks, several hawks and magpies and one meadowlark. Reached mouth of Box Elder at 10 a.m.
N of creek, Niobrara and Dakota dip 66˚, strike N 55˚ E. Benton measures 143 yds horizontally across and Dakota about 100 yards. S of creek Niobrara dips 82˚ strike N 45˚ E carries it directly into outcrops on N side. N end of S side outcrop swings to N for last few feet. 75 horizontal yards across Benton and 75 across Dakota.
Found no yellow ss in Jurassic at mouth of canyon, but the l.s. containing the fossils (of which we have had slides made) and one foot (or more) concretionary zone is present. In isolated hill inside mouth of canyon the deep red Lykins passes above into pinkish roundly massive s.s., which abruptly changes to whitish, in turn abruptly but apparently conformably into angular yellow s.s. Probably that in which Hayden found Pentacrinus and Ostrea. Above this is the fossiliferous l.s. At one point there is a marked unconformity near base of Jura for 50 ft thus ((drawing in field book)).
Worked back S of Niobrara ridge, found no fossils in Benton and only Ostrea and Inoceramus fragments in the Dakota. Saw white tailed jack rabbit.
Then came back to Ft. Collins by road which passes the mouth of Owl Canyon drainage. Started back at 2:30 reaching hotel at 5:20. has been warm walking this afternoon, and bright, but a cool breeze which made overcoat comfortable when driving.

Ft. Collins, Jan 28, 1909

Cloudy, a strong, cold north wind. Arose at 7 a.m., left for Boulder at 8 a.m.

Boulder, Feby 13, 1909

Cloudy, east wind. W. W. Robbins and I started for Green Mt. Via Skunk Canyon at 9:30 a.m. Saw only usual number of magpies and long crested jays, one buzzard, a few chickadees one canyon or winter wren and one pine squirrel. Robbins shot the squirrel. Not a junco, tree sparrow or any other species. At noon it began snowing and continued till we reached home at 2 p.m. and balance of day.

Tuesday, Mch 2, 1909

Started for Ft. Collins with G. W. Bartholomew of the Portland Cement Co. on 7:50 p.m. train. Windy. Reached Ft. Collins on time and went to Northern Hotel.

Wednesday Mch 3, 1909

Started with Bartholomew and team from Daly and Nelson’s at 7:30 a.m., for Owl Canyon. Saw numerous shore larks and red winged blackbirds. Examined gypsum, found section thus in the Lykins:
Limestone capping escarpment
Red clay 75 ft
Gypsum 25 ft
Covered 10 ft.
Crossbedded sandstone.

Reached Collins at 3:10 p.m. Gypsum at Owl canyon is crossed by west line of sec 6, tp 9 N R 69 W. Returned to Boulder in Evening, reaching here at 6 p.m. Bartholomew paid me $20.00 for the trip and all expenses.

Boulder, Colo., March 23, 1909

Delightful morning, but hazy clouds. I started alone up Gregory Canyon at 7:30 a.m. Six meadowlarks before reaching mouth of canyon. Saw Junco sp. at mouth of Gregory Canyon. Further up saw nuthatches and took a chipmunk and chickadee. Saw a Clarke nutcracker. Passed over the divide into bear Canyon, where nutcrackers were plentiful, as well as chickadees and nuthatches. Shot another chickadee and nuthatch. Then worked down Bear canyon and over into Skunk Canyon where I shot a chickadee of the other species. Just south of town heard 3 more meadowlarks and saw 2 bluebirds and one robin. Lon crested jaws all along the route but magpies only in Skunk Canyon. Juncos only at mouth of Gregory and mouth of Skunk Canyon. Shot a nutcracker for his skeleton. Began to sprinkle just before reaching my room at the Y.M.C.A. at 6 p.m. Still raining hard when I went to bed after a dip in the swimming pool.

Boulder, Colo.
Sunday, June 6, 1909

Went to church in forenoon. Dined with rev. Pulliam, then hurried to University and marched in the academic procession to the Presbyterian Church and heard the Baccalaureate Sermon.

Monday, June 7, 1909

Very rainy day. Finished my work at museum for the semester. Saw 2 nighthawks.

Tuesday June 8, 1909

Clouds low in morning, but soon lifted. Got meals at the Boulderado. Took representative Chas. Hayden, a member of the advisory board, to dinner with me. In evening I went to the campus illumination etc.

Wednesday, June 9, 1909

Clear early in morning. Soon clouded. Academic procession started at 10 a.m. Took cars to Chatauqua. Terrific rain and hail just as we reached the grounds, continuing for some time , then with milder force nearly all through commencement exercises. Dined at Home Lunch Counter at 2 p.m., Packed trunk and left for Denver on 4:40 train, sprinkling again as I left. The foregoing 4 days record written on train just after leaving. Too busy to write it in large diary this week. The fields and prairies are beautifully green.
Birds seen: Doves, meadowlarks, redwings, lark buntings, kingbirds. Barn swallows, Boulder Creek, Clear Creek and Platte River high. Hailed as we reached Denver, got wet going to U.P. ticket office and found it locked. Returned to depot and found my sleeper ticket there. Felger (?) came into car and we had a brief talk. Left Denver for Los Angeles at 7:05 p.m., got dinner in diner. Went to bed early. Reached Cheyenne at 10:40.

Cheyenne, Wyo., Thursday
June 10, 1909

Still at Cheyenne, held up on account of floods. Cold and partly cloudy. Cheyenne paper reports 64 as maximum temperature, 45 minimum. Clear part of day. Left Cheyenne at 2 p.m., crossed Trias and Carboniferous at 2:45 and entered granite. Formations very irregular in strike and dip but mostly strike E-W and dip possibly northerly. Passed through long tunnel at 3:30 and 7 minutes later cut red sandstones again. On Laramie plains at 3:45, broad and flat, stratified rocks (Carboniferous?) to north, plain buried beneath debris mantle and rising abruptly from plains to south are mountains apparently of granite. Reached Laramie at 4 p.m.

Ogden, Utah. June 11, 1909

Woke up at Ogden at 5 a.m., bright, but cool, soon warming up. Mts. Bordering valley with much snow, especially at Salt Lake. Went into diner just after leaving Salt Lake. Immediately after breakfast the engine broke down , causing another delay. At Tintic there are many mines – most important camp in Utah. Beyond great scrub cedar forests. SW of Lynn sagebrush desert, with no grass.

Barstow, Cali., June 12, 1909

Awoke at 5:30 here, bright and quite warm. Tree yuccas here, but soon left behind, as also large “soapweed”. Reached Los Angeles at 11 a.m. 15 hours behind. Nellie, Henry, Alice, Ina and Cousin Mamie met me at depot and Nellie Ina and I went to the house for lunch. Spent afternoon at house. At 7 p.m. The Kittle’s (sic) called for a few moments. At 8 p.m. we all went to Henry’s and spent the evening with music.

Los Angeles, Cali., June 13, 1909

Kittle called with the auto and took Nellie, Frank and I for a ride to Hollywood. At 4:30 Nellie and I took the “Salt Lake” train for Long beach, where uncle George and Dr. A. L. Bryant met us at the train. After lunch we all walked down on the wharf. Cloudy forenoon, sunny afternoon.

Long Beach, Cali., June 14, 1909

Cloudy morning. I spent most of the forenoon packing 1800 shells and sea urchins Nellie had collected . In the afternoon Nellie and I walked west up the beach beyond Seaside where we collected some 700 shells, mostly of Cerithiidae ? They were in the sand which had been dumped out by the dredger and which formed the dyke along the channel.

Long Beach, Cali., June 15, 1909

Cloudy morning. Arose at 6:30 and packed the shells collected yesterday. Left Long Beach on Salt Lake car with cousin Fannie Coad and husband at 9:34 for Catalina, fare $5.00. Very calm, warm, only partly cloudy. Put up at Delmar, got a very poor dinner at the Klondike Restaurant, then went to Seal Rocks in the glass bottomed boat Hermosa. In the evening walked to a bay north of Avalon. Supped at Arlington Café. Very good.

Avalon, Cali., June 16, 1909

Clear, calm and hot. I arose at 6:30 breakfasted and started SE along beach. Found rocks covered with limpets of several species, Littorina and Chlorostoma. In an hour or so Nellie and Fannie joined me. We walked to Pebble Beach (the town dump) and found there a few cone shells etc. on the shingle. Have seen no sandy beaches on the island yet and few pebbly ones. Sea cliff usually precipitous, porphyry and other igneous or intrusive rocks. Near Seal Rocks it looked like a coarse conglomerate in places as seen from the boat. Returned to Avalon at 2:45 and left on the Hermosa at 3:15, reaching Long Beach at 6:15. Spent evening cleaning snails and spreading their opercula to dry. Collected 497 specimens of limpet spp., Littorina sp., Chlorostoma sp., and other mollusca, but only two land snails. Island very dry.

Long Beach, Cali. June 17/09

Spent forenoon finishing the preparation of the snails. In afternoon Nellie and I were on the beach most of the time. I left for Los Angeles at 4:50p.m. In evening, Lu, Allie, Ina and I called on Henry and Louise and told her goodbye, as she leaves for the east tomorrow. Frank went to Long Beach, so I have missed him. He returned on late car.

Los Angeles, Cali.
June 18, 1909

Kittle and I went to Glendale in the auto. Called on Dr. Al. Bryant and Mrs. Goss, Goss being away. I left Los Angeles for Long Beach on 2:30 p.m. car. Rained last night, cloudy this forenoon, clear this afternoon. In afternoon Nellie and I walked a long ways east on Long Beach and collected about 150 or 200 specimens of shells.

Long Beach, Cali.
June 19, 1909

Bright, clear and warm. At 10:30 I started for Los Angeles on electric car. Went to City Hall and found Frank, where Kittle and Melvin joined us. Frank went to the City Club dinner, and the rest of us to a cafeteria, then at 1:30 we all started for Portuguese Bend, above Point Firman in Kittle’s auto. Left auto on bluffs and went down to beach, collected crabs, limpets etc. Then got supper and made our beds, turning in at 9 p.m.

Portuguese Bend, Cali.
June 20, 1909

I arose at 5:30 and started for the beach, where the others joined me at 8:30. Got some fine material. Found Keyhole Limpets (volcano) and large chitons, and black abalones by turning rocks, other species (snails and bivalves) on upper surfaces of rocks. Collected a few fish also and a lizard. Fleas were very bad last night and prevented sleep. We found they were swarming along the bluffs where sheep or goats had been grazing, so we packed up and came back to Los Angeles, starting about 11:30. Has been bright and warm all day. Frank and I spent the evening at Henry’s, then returned to his house. Collected over 500 specimens yesterday and today. Keyhole limpets (volcano) only found under rocks, others under and over. Black abalones under and in crevices.

Los Angeles, Cali., June 21, 1909

Dense fog at 6 a.m., but cleared early. I left for Long beach at 10:40 but did not arrive until 11 a.m. on account of trouble with the motor. Stayed in house most of afternoon. Developed negatives in evening.

Long Beach, Cali., June 22/09

Cloudy forenoon and moist. Saw several large slugs on sidewalk. Walked beyond Seaside and collected a lot of shells etc., 67 specimens. In afternoon Nellie and I went to east San Pedro and collected 869 shells on the SW end of Terminal Island, possibly the residuum of erosion of Pleistocene beds, though the perfect condition of the most fragile Pectens and Crucibulum are against that idea. Clear afternoon. Total collections to date 4583.

Long Beach, Cali., June 23, 1909

Cloudy morning, nearly clear by noon. Stayed in house most of forenoon. Nellie and I went to theater and saw “Winchester” in the afternoon.

Long Beach, Cali., June 24/09

Cloudy, misty morning. Nellie and I took the Seaside car at 9:50, then walked to East San Pedro, returning on 5:45 “Salt Lake” train. Clear afternoon. Collected 1607 specimens, making a total of 5650 to date.

Long Beach Cali., June 25, 1909

Moist, cloudy morning. We packed yesterday’s collections and swept the house in the forenoon. Clear at noon as usual.

Long Beach, Cali., June 26, 1909

Cloudy morning, cleared before noon. I went to Los Angeles on 10:10 a.m. car. Went to City hall and met Frank. We went to City Club and from there to Pacific Electric Station, where we started on City Club San Pedro excursion at 1:10, about 250 men in five cars. At San Pedro the conductor announced that he could not get the power to run to Point Firman, which of course the company knew before the excursion started. So we boarded six boats and ran first through the outer harbor, then through the inner harbor to the Craig shipyards at Seaside, where we went through the plant. The channels of the inner harbor reminded me of the tide flats about La Conner on Puget Sound, at high tide. At Seaside we boarded electric cars and went to Long Beach, where we dined at the Virginia then listened to talks on San Pedro harbor by Capt. Freis, the engineer in charge of the government, and others. The ran to Los Angeles which we reached at 11 p.m. I went home with Henry for the night. My fleabites were badly inflamed so I bathed them in a saturated solution of baking soda, which allayed the itching.

Long Beach, June 27, 1909

Clear morning and warm. Henry and I went to Frank’s for breakfast, then I went to Kittles, where Nellie arrived last night. We all went in the auto to a cafeteria for dinner, then rode to Eastlake Park and on to Huntington road, then Nellie and I came back to Long beach on 4 oclock car.

Long Beach, June 28, 1909

Cloudy morning, cleared soon and hot afternoon. Nellie and I went down to Naples Bay, where we found some fine Bulla gouldiana, abundant Cerithidea and Melampus? Took car to and from Mira Mar, just above head of Naples canal. Got 195 specimens (including 38 Bulla) besides 15 specimens I got this morning. Total collections to date 5860.

Long Beach, Cali., June 29/09

Bright, hot day. Surf very high. In afternoon I went through the reclaimed tidelands north of Seaside. Cerithidea in enormous numbers as far as the tides reach. Melampus olivaceus snails nearer coast Mud pumped out by dredger contained many Tagelus, Chione, Ostrea etc. and a few pectens. In evening Nellie and I attended Bide a wyle theater – performance very poor.

Long Beach Cali., June 30/09

Hot and bright. I rode to Mira Mar on the Naples car and took photos E and W along the coast from the point. Then took 14th st. car and went to Salt Marsh N of Seaside where I took 2 photos of Cerithidea and collected 2 tern eggs. Collected a few shells.

Long Beach Cali., July 1, 1909

A hot morning, cloudy and cooler in afternoon. I went to Los Cerritos and collected 610 Pleistocene fossils, returning at 3 p.m. At 4 p.m. Nellie and I went to Los Angeles , met Francis at the Santa Fe train. Dined at Boos Cafeteria opposite Pacific Electric Station. Then Nellie and Francis went to Long Beach and I went to Franks, where I found Zoë Dobson and her children and Gertrude Thompson.

Los Angeles, Cali., July 2, 2909

Bright, hot morning. I called on Ralph Arnold at H. W. Hellman Bldg. Got dinner at Boos cafeteria, met Nellie at Pacific Electric Station and at 1:45 we left for Santa Barbara on Southern Pacific R.R., where Kittle met us with the auto. It has been a terribly hot day, but cool at Santa Barbara. In evening we went to band concert.

Santa Barbara, Cali.
July 3, 1909
Harl, Carl, Melonie and I went into Mission Canyon before breakfast. Then we went to the beach. In afternoon went to the beach again and collected limpets, etc. Bright and hot in the sun where sheltered from the wind, but wind cool. Found three species of limpets alive, and Littorina, one turban shell and one chiton and one coffee bean shell. Many dead specimens of Conus, Olivella, Chama and mussels. Small mussels alive, also the peculiar non sessile barnacle like animal which we first found at Portuguese Bend. Total collections to date 6485 + 80 = 6565.

Santa Barbara, Cali.
July 5, 1909

Bright morning but cool breeze. Harl took the women and small children in the auto and Carl Strock, Melvin and I walked the beach a mile or so SE of the lighthouse, returning at 6:30 p.m. Collected about 130 shells. Total collections to date 6695

Santa Barbara, Cali., July 6, 1909

Bright, warm morning. Harl and I explored the bluffs at the bath house and collected about 400 small Pleistocene fossils, mostly gastropods and fragments of Bryozoa. The formation dips westerly or southwesterly. On top of the next point west we found kitchen middens containing clam and mussel shells. I afternoon collected about 300 Pliocene at S end and on E face of Packard Hill. The S end is a mass of small Bryozoa stems, with a few small pectens and other shells. Then Harl and wife and Nellie and I went in to the swimming pool. In evening we dined at Stocks, then they came to Kittle’s and spent evening. I swam more than I have for years. Total collections to date 7395.

Santa Barbara, Cali.,
July 7, 1909

Bright, warm morning. We left Santa Barbara on the S. P. Ry. At 10:30 a.m., reached Los Angeles 2:30 p.m. Went out to Frank’s house, then took 5:20 electric car for Long Beach. Wrote a lot of letters in evening.

Long Beach, Cali., July 8/09

Foggy morning, clearing up by 10:30. Nellie and I took 9:30 train to East San Pedro on Salt Lake Road. There we rented a boat from Paul La Marr’s boathouse and rowed to Deadman’s Island. Collected limpets, marine snails of several species, one Bulla etc. on beach then collected fossils on east end of island. West end shows Miocene? conglomerate at base. Found no fossils. Above is a sandstone, probably lower San Pedro Pleistocene, with few fossils, of which we collected none. Above this is the upper San Pedro with several horizons filled with fine fossils. We collected several thousand. They were weathered out so that we could obtain fine specimens with but little work, especially under on((e)) ledge. A the top of the bluffs is black, soil about 2 feet in depth, containing kitchen middens, chiefly Pecten aequicoststa. Returned to Long Beach on the 5:45 train.

Long Beach, Cali., June 9,1909

Cloudy morning. Arose at 5:30 and Nellie, Dr. Carter and I left on 7:05 a.m. train for Pomona (Salt Lake Route). Reached Los Angeles at 8 a.m., left there at 8:35. reached Pomona at9:35 and were met at depot by John A Kennedy and taken to his home at 720 N Garey St. In Afternoon we all went out in a neighborhood auto.

Pomona, Cali., July 10, 1909

Cloudy morning, soon clearing. Nellie, Dr. carter and I went for a drive with Mr. Kennedy. Went through packing house and saw them packing oranges, and through the Cannery and saw them canning and drying apricots. Then Dr. carter went to Mr. Hall’s. At 1:18 we took Southern Pacific train for Ontario, Lu and Frank being on board. Harry Jones met us there and drove us to Maud Harris’ home 18 mi. E of Ontario and 7 mi. N of Corona.

Ranch W of Ontario. Cali., July 11, 1909

Very dense fog at 6 a.m., nearly clear at 9 a.m. Collected Planorbis trivolvis, P. parvus, Physa sp. Lymnaea bulimnoides ? and Pisidium in pond at artesian well. The Lymnaea was found mostly in the mud outside the little streamlet which runs through the slough. Harris and Maud brought Frank, Nellie, Laton and I to Ontario for the 5:40 train and Nellie and I reached Long Beach at 9 p.m., going out on the electric from Los Angeles.

Long Beach, Cali., July 12, 1909

Foggy morning, clearing early. Spent the day in packing 5 boxes of recent and fossil shells.

Long Beach, Cali., July 13/09

Foggy morning. Most common birds at Long beach are mocking bird and Brewer blackbird. Least ? tern common in mud flats. In harbor are ring billed gulls and an occasional pelican. At Portuguese bend saw California quail and road runners and burrowing owl and saw former at Santa Barbara. In Ontario the following:
Western mockingbird abundant
Ark. flycatcher abundant
Cassin flycatcher few
Burrowing owl abundant
California shrike common
Brewer blackbird abundant
Black phoebe one
House finch common
Buzzard common
Killdeer common
Dove Common
Meadowlark abundant
Cliff swallow abundant

Collected 3443 specimens at Deadman Isl. And Ontario. Total to date 10, 838

Shipped six boxes early in afternoon to Boulder, by Salt lake and Union Pacific, paying $7.50 freight. Later in afternoon Nellie and I went east on beach and collected 470 fossils from base of cliff and also from half way to top. The Tagelus all came from upper horizon, also collected 10 recent shells. Total collections to date 11,318.

Long Beach, Cali., July 14, 1909

Cloudy morning, as usual, Clear before noon. Packed my trunk in forenoon. Went to beach to see Elk national Convention crowd in afternoon.

Long Beach, Cali., July 15, 1909

Cloudy morning. Nellie and I came to Los Angeles on the 10:30 a.m. electric, sending my trunk on the Salt Lake. At L.A. we stood on a box and saw part of the Elk’s parade, got lunch at small restaurant opposite Pacific Electric Station, then I went to Salt Lake Station and from there to Frank’s house. In evening, we all went to Frank’s office in City Hall and saw electric parade of floats on street car tracks. Hot afternoon, cool evening.

Los Angeles, Cali., July 16, 1909

I stayed at Franks house until late afternoon, then Frank and I went to redondo and tried new bath house, returning at 7 p.m.Nellie went with Ina to see parade, and Maud Harris and husband and her mother came back with them. Cloudy morning and evening, bright afternoon.

Los Angeles, Cali., July 17, 1909

Cloudy morning, clear but hazy at 8 a.m. I called on Louise Thompson Lampshire at here (sic) store on Pico St., then went with her to her home to see her daughter margaret. Afterwards visited Chamber of Commerce builing. Reached house at 12:15. In evening, Nellie, Lucy and I went to Henry’s.

Los Angeles, Cali., July 18, 1909

Very bright, warm morning, but cool breeze soon sprang up. Frank, Henry, Lucy, Nellie and I went toGlendale on the 10:30 car, dined at Dr. A. L. Bryant’s and I spent afternoon looking over R. D. Goss’ shell collection. Henry and Frank returned early the rest of us leaving there about 6:30 p.m.

Los Angeles, Cali., Monday
July 19, 1909

Usual fog this morning. Left Los Angeles on Salt Lake Road at 10 a.m., still hazy. Not as warm as I expected in forenoon, but afternoon very bright and hot on desert. T 96+ at 6 p.m.

July 20, 1909

Bright morning. For the first time I shaved while train was in motion and with not trouble or cuts. Cool breeze all day. Fine stream and marshes for mallusks etc. , just east of Evans. Does not look good for fossils. Red predominates in rocks from Salt Lake to Evans and further. The tunnel 50 minutes from Evans (east) occupied 4 ½ minutes at fair speed. Bluffs, probably Tertiary, appeared on both sides before reaching Granger, bounding (sic) the broad shallow valley of a stream. At Green River the lower part of bluffs very light colored, darker above and nearly red at top.

Cheyenne, Wyo. Wednesday
July 21, 1909

Bright morning. Left Cheyenne at 8;35 a.m. Quite warm at noon. Reached Denver at 11:35. Felger (?) met me at Depot and we talked over our coming trip as we visited D and R. G. offices. I left for Boulder on 12:30 train. Had Yates take me and my baggage to the museum, where I unpacked my trunk and examine my mail. Then went to Boulderado Hotel, took a bath and dined. Fine rain at 6 p.m. Everything here is green and beautiful. I am told that rain has been abundant.

Boulder, Colo, July 22, 1909

Quite warm today. I have written a large number of letters, finished packing and shipping our goods to Newcastle, Colo., for our trip. Terry Duce called in evening to talk over trip.

Boulder, Colo., July 23, 1909

Cooler. At 1 p.m. there was a terrific thunderstorm. Two or three people drowned and others injured in flood in Two Mile canyon. Terry Duce called in evening for final instructions.

Boulder, Colo., July 24, 1909

Hot morning, partly cloudy, remaining so through the day. Finished reading Enos a Mills’ “Wild Life on the Rockies” Went to denver on 6;30 p.m. interurban, riding in seat with henry Drumm. Went to Albany Hoteland got a room and retired early.

Denver, Colo., July 25, 1909

Arose at 6 a.m. Found W. W. Robbins and mother on 17th St. and took them to breakfast at home dairy. Then went to Union Depot and arranged for transfer of Mrs. Robbins baggage, walked to Moffat Depot and took 8 a.m. train, which was crowded. Bright but comfortable morning. Reached Tolland at 10:15. Dr. Ramaley and I went down gulch a short distance from the mountain laboratory. Tolland is 8889 ft. above sea level in a fine mountain valley, modified by glacial action. Moraine consists chiefly of granite and gneiss, and have been cut through by South Boulder Creek. Down creek in forenoon we saw white crowned sparrows, Lincoln sparrows and Brewer blackbirds, besides a small bird which looked much like a chipping sparrow. In afternoon, Robbins, Prosser and I went up stream and collected several species of snails under aspens. In evening I identified and labelled the birds collected by Robbins.

Tolland, Col.,July 26, 1909

Bright, hot morning, cooler and partly cloudy toward 10 a.m. Arose at 6 a.m. and went down gulch to Rollinsville with Ramaley, eating fruit and crackers along the way. The moraines end where the gulch narrows below Tolland. White crowned sparrows, hummingbirds and magpies common. A few chickadees. One grayheaded junco at Rollinsville Station. A few barn swallows and numbers of Brewer blackbirds. At 2 p.m. I lectured at the mountain laboratory on “birds and their relation to man” and at 7 p.m. on “the large mammals of the United States”. In latter part of afternoon I helped Rollins pack the collections. Rained hard from 3 to 4 p.m.

Tolland, Colo., July 27, 1909

Bright, cool, windy morning, heavy bank of clouds to the west over the range, soon breaking up. Spent most of forenoon packing up, but collected leeches, Crustacea and water beetles for half an hour in the lake north of the laboratory. At 2 p.m. lectured at laboratory on birds, including a general account of Colorado birds. At 4:30 Robbins and I went down valley a short distance. At 5:30 there were 15 night hawks hovering over the meadow. At 6 p.m. saw none. Barn swallows abundant, violet green less so. At 7 p.m. I lectured at the laboratory on “Glaciers of Colorado, existing and extinct”.

Tolland, Colo., July 28, 1909

Bright, fresh, breezy morning. Started for Jenny Lake at 10:15. Robbins and I and Mr. And Mrs. Pennoc and Miss Wollman. Came down gulch on foot. In pond at 10,500 ft collected Pisidia and water beetles. On way back saw 3 hermit thrushes, one young. At Newcomb, 9300 ft., saw 2 red shafted flicker and a western robin. At railroad bridge saw a night hawk at 4:30 flying very high. The country traversed today is heavily glaciated. The Forest lake and the two above it and many others occur in a valley heading in a glacial cirque. Some are rock basins, others morainal. There are rock ridges cutting across the gulch, as at North Boulder and Camp Albion gulches. That gulch leads into another, which in twin leads into South Boulder Creek (see map in paper by Ramaley or Robbins). Glaciation extends down South Boulder to a mile or so below Tolland. Below that we saw no plain evidence of it. Up creek a gulch coming in from the south looks even more heavily glaciated. Perhaps this is because the topography is not so much affected by post-glacial erosion. The bird fauna as I have noticed it of this region is as follows:
Red shafted flicker
Brewer blackbird
Red naped sapsucker
Barn swallow
Violet green swallow
Night hawk
Red wing blackbird
White crown sparrow
Killdeer (Robbins)
Golden crowned kinglet
Pine grosbeak (higher up)
Audubon hermit thrush (higher up)
Chipping sparrow ?
Broadwing hummingbird
Gray headed junco- Rollinsville to timberline
Mt. Bluebird
Red headed woodpecker (one specimen)
Western meadowlark
Long crested jay
Clarke crow (Robbins)
Rocky Mt. Jay (specimen thrown away)
Yellow warbler (Robbins)
Robin to timberline

The robins I have seen are the western but a specimen taken by Robbins has the white tips of outer tail feather very distinct.
In catching the large (1/2 inch long) water beetles today I noticed that I could not catch them at all by grabbing at them as they rested on the surface of the water, but never failed when I dipped my hand quickly but quietly beneath them and scooped them up. Very few clouds through the day, rather warm , sprinkled a little in evening.

Tolland, Colo., July 29, 1909

Warm morning, but partly cloudy. Rained hard during night. At 8:45 Robbins and I started west on the partly completed state road to Apex, which climbs the south side of South Boulder canyon. Fine view of Boulder Park. The park is a partly filled and partly drained morainal lake, the moraine being just east of the railroad station a few hundred rods, the remnant of the lake being north of the station. A strip of considerable width through the park has been reworked by South Boulder Creek since the glacier retreated. The terrace is sharply outlined on each side of the present course of the stream, and numerous small lagoons mark the cut-off oxbow loops. The present stream shows a beautiful system of meanders. Along the road a short distance from the village are several deposits of slide rock separated from the main ridge by a shallow depression. They lie on a steep slope and are apparently the result of rock sliding over a post glacial snow and ice bank for years and stopping at the foot of the ice or snow. The moraine here extends up the slopes several hundred feet. There appears to be a roche moutonee within South Boulder canyon. At mouth of Mammoth Gulch the moraine is very deep, perhaps 200 or 300 ft. On each side there is a hummocky lateral moraine. Two long, parallel, narrow ridges extend up gulch for a mile. Between them flows the creek. E of the E ridge is a wet valley in which but little water now flows. To the W of the W ridge is the Teller Lake and its valley. Perhaps the two stream valleys were subglacial stream beds and continued to flow from the end of the retreating glacier. Certainly there must have been considerable post glacial erosion, as the grade of the gulch is steep and the present stream is swift. The whole wide valley is a beautiful example of glacial topography. The glacier headed on E side of James Peak. Teller Lake is morainal, and is very near the mouth of the gulch. At present South Boulder is the main stream and Mammoth is a tributary. Came down E valley on way back, and followed railroad through cuts which expose gneiss ridges extending out diagonally into the South Boulder valley, apparently the result of fluting by the glacier as in the upper North Boulder canyon. A rough diagram is as follows: ((Drawing in field book)). Rained hard at 1 p.m. and continued fitfully through afternoon.

Tolland, Colo., July 30, 1909

Fine, bright morning, cold at first but soon warming. Had early breakfast. Miss Kirkton left on 7:05 train for her home in Canyon (sic) City. After breakfast we finished packing everything which is to be shipped from the laboratory and got outfit to the train by 11:30. Very tired. Miss Bruderlin, Robbins and mother, Miss McKenzie and I left Tolland on 3:56 train for Denver. Reached denver at 6 p.m. Felger met us at Moffat depot and helped with baggage to Union depot where we checked it. The others went to Boulder and I went with Felger to spend the night at his home.

Denver, Colo., July 31, 1909

Bright, warm morning. Felger and I left denver on D & R.G. at 8 a.m. Cloudy with cool breeze most of day. Reached Newcastle at 11:30 p.m. and went to Albany Hotel.
Newcastle, Colo., Aug 1, 1909

Bright, warm morning. Up at 6:30 and found Terry Duce at hotel. ((J. Terry Duce later became a famous oil geologist. He was sent to all parts of the world and while there often collected specimens for us. We have many butterflies from South America that he collected and sent here.)) After breakfast, Felger, Terry and I walked up Elk Creek half a mile to the camp of the U. S. Geol. Survey party which is engaged in coal land work under Albert E. Beekley. At W edge of town the end of the Great Hogback has strata dipping about S by W. After noon we circled the big hill north of town, Felger soon turning back. Terry and I going across the valley to the lower Mancos lying along the bluffs. We found dead Oreohelix haydeni gobbiana sprinkling the slopes wherever we went, following up to the top of the mesa we found them alive under mountain mahogany, but not elsewhere. The strata dip approximately S and the angle is 35˚ or 40˚. At top of mesa is a conglomerate composed of boulders up to 18 inches diameter of red sandstone well cemented. Then we followed along the limestone and calcareous shales resembling the Niobrara of Owl Canyon region, and found Inoceramus deformis and Ostrea congesta. Proceeding up to the pond on Elk Creek above the U. S. G. S. camp and collected Crustacea, beetles, etc. and then found Oreohelix cooperi ? under Populus logs and Pyramidula cockerelli. Then visited camp and met Beekley. He said the sandstone forming S face of hill N of town and NE face of hill W of town is base of Mesa Verde formation. ((Two drawings in note book, one a sketch map of the Newcastle area and one a cross section))
Mancos = Benton, Niobrara and lower Pierre
Mesa Verde = upper Pierre and Fox Hills
The lower Mancos shows black shales overlaid by limestone like Benton and Niobrara, the limestone containing Inoceramus deformis and Ostrea congesta. Went to M. E. church in evening. W. W. Robbins arrived on the 11:15 train. Sprinkled most of afternoon and until midnight.

Newcastle, Colo., Aug 2, 1909

Bright, hot morning. Robbins and I arose at 6 a.m., got breakfast, got our freight and baggage to liver stable and I unpacked it while Robbins went collecting plants. In afternoon Felger, Robbins, Terry and I followed S side of Grand River down to first gulch – Alkali Gulch – Robbins for plants, Felger for birds, Terry and I for fossils. The Mesa Verde formation is mostly sandstone, partly massive with some shales or very fine, rather friable sandstones. In Alkali Gulch, just above a coal vein on the east side, we found many leaves like the Laramie material, in sandstone. This coal vein seems to continue westward to the Keystone Coal Mine. It has been worked on W side of Alkali Gulch and again on SE side of river opposite Keystone Mine. Up Alkali Gulch we found a stratum of sandstone strongly impregnated with iron oxide, containing many leaves, and collected a bag full, including fragments of palm leaves. Returned at 4:30. It has been very hot. Nelson from the U.S.G.S camp says magnetic declination here is 15˚35’ E.

Newcastle, Colo., Aug 3, 1909

Bright, cool morning. Had a splendid night’s sleep. Got a 3-inch covered wagon and team from Hugh Miller and spent forenoon packing and loading the wagon. Left Newcastle at 1;30 p.m. Drove up Elk Creek to the forks, then a short distance up main fork (west fork) and photographed the conglomerate unconformably overlying upturned edges of Mancos, looking south, and the lower Mancos (= Niobrara l.s.) looking west. The N side of gulch has the Niobrara l.s. and Benton shale on basal slope of gulch wall, backed by what resembles Dakota sandstone. Back of this are variegated shales, with probable l.s. like Morrison, all underlaid by red beds as east of the range. Far north is a different formation. Niobrara where we photographed it has 70˚ dip SW, strike NW, overlaid by “paper” shales as at Six Mile N of Boulder. The conglomerate over the edges of these formations contains granite, gneiss and red and white s.s. boulders up to 18 inch diameter, quite hard. Mancos shales extend up on slope of south wall, capped by Mesa Verde. At top of Benton in one place I found a shaly sandstone containing plant stems as north of Boulder. Where Elk Creek breaks through the “Dakota” we left it and kept on west by north. Here the Dakota extends to base of slope of canyon wall. On south wall of canyon, in Mesa Verde formation, coal is burning or has burnt for (sic) Newcastle at least four miles up Elk Creek. We camped a short distance NE of Rifle Gap, at 7:30 p.m., got to bed a little after ten.

Rifle Gap, Aug 4, 1909

Arose at 6:30. After breakfast Terry and I started down into the Gap on the SE side of creek. Between the first well defined sandstone ledge and the second we found Cardium speciosum, Mactra, Ostrea, Anchura, Lunatia and other gastropods in float rock. Immediately above the second ledge we found a fossiliferous stratum 2 or 3 ft. in thickness, dipping S angle 73˚, containing Anomia raetiformis, Corbicula, Ostrea, with no Cardium or gastropods. The first s.s. does not make a ridge on the W side of the gap. Above the next s.s. is a coal vein which has been worked somewhat on both sides of gap. This is overlaid by clay shales, then sandy shales. About 100 ft. above this is a series of burned s.s. and clays which I estimated to be 200 ft. thick, probably metamorphosed by burning of coal veins. This is overlaid by a massive s.s. like the Laramie, which in turn is overlaid by alternating s.s. etc. as below. I notice two more coal openings above this on W side of gap, the uppermost but little below the upper ridge making sandstone ledge. All along the sandy slope we found dead Oreohelix cooperi, but saw no live ones, though, for that matter, I did not look for them. Took one picture looking at the W side of the gap, down stream, another of the lower Mesa Verde on the W side from the E side. Another of the upper fossil outcrop on E side. Reached camp at 1:30 p.m.. Very hot forenoon. Afternoon I cleaned the Oreohelix from Newcastle and found both species to contain young. Then at 4 p.m. Terry and I visited the very steep slope showing upper Mancos shales and lower Mesa Verde sandstones. I the lower Mesa Verde we found a thick stratum (about 8 inches) filled with fossils, including Baculites, Bryozoa, Serpula markmani, Anchura, et al., but no Cardium, Mactra, Callista or Ostrea. The three faunas we have found here are very distinct. In this last horizon we also found 2 specimens of Halymenites major and many plant stems, probably marine. Reached camp at 6:30, retired at 9:30

Rifle Gap, Aug 5, 1909

Hot bright morning. Up at 6:30, broke camp and started for Pieance (sic) Creek at 8:30. Put on the odometer after travelling one mile by mile post. Saw meadowlarks, mourning doves, many piñon jays, long crested jays, Arkansas flycatchers, one Louisiana tanager, rock wren. As we passed out of the gap we found sandstones etc, dipping to the S or SW about 10˚. These I take for Wasatch. Between these and the Mesa Verde sandstones are varicolored marls which surely are Wasatch. I believe that the entire series from the upper Mesa Verde sandstones to the top of the Book Cliffs is probably referable to Wasatch. At one point on Government Creek there appeared to be an unconformity, sandstones resting apparently unconformably on the varicolored. However it seems to be in the axis of a fold and may be faulted. The Gov. Cr. Gulch, instead of approximately following the Mesa Verde – Wasatch contact, slowly passes into the latter. We reached Rio Blanco Stage Station, ¾ mil from Rio Blanco P.O. ((on)) Piceance Creek, 20 miles N of Rifle, in Rio Blanco Co. at 5:15 p.m. and camped, having stopped for an hour shortly after noon to feed the horses., where there was little water for them. Water at Rifle Gap was very poor, creek water being used from the creek by the ranchers and being affected by irrigation. At Piceance Creek it was a little better but alkaline.

Rio Blanco, Colo., Aug 6, 1909

It began raining before daylight and still continues. About 10 a.m., after carrying a lot of wood half a mile for camp use, Terry and I started up creek through the gap ((gap on Piceance Creek, circa ½ mile E of Rio Blanco P.O.)). At its mouth is a coarse conglomerate which is likely the base of the Tertiary. Below it lies the usual series of Mesa Verde sandstones, clays and coal. The walking through wet weeds and mud was hard, so we did not do much climbing and found no fossils except one Halymenites major, which Terry found at the base of the Mesa Verde. Dips vary somewhat, owing to folds, but in general are westerly, from Rifle Gap northward. ((This is the west side of the “Grand Hogback”, one of the major physiographic features of NW Colorado)) In the gap here above Rio Blanco is a small reservoir, where we collected one leech, a lot of small Physa and water bugs. Under logs we got Zonitoides ? and Euconulus trochiformis. Dead Oreohelix cooperi were somewhat common about the scrub oaks. I found two live ones clinging to the upper surface of rocks beneath oaks. Red wing blackbirds and bluebirds are common here. Also a large ground squirrel. We returned to camp about 1:30, wet and tired. At 4 p.m. I started up creek again, rain having ceased. Found Oreohelix cooperi very abundant under aspens, etc, crawling about in the moist atmosphere. Under one small alder I picked up 25 live ones. In the same place under aspen sticks I found Pyramidula, Zonitoides, Vallonia, Vitrina, Euconulus, Thysanophora, Pupilla, Vertigo and perhaps others and an Agriolimax further up. In creek I found one dead Lymnaea bulimnoides (perhaps variety) and a few dead valves of Pisidium which could not be saved. In the reservoir a mile up creek I got Physa sp. The Oreohelix were on slopes of Mesa Verde sandstone, as well as the other land snails. Rained again while I was out. This noon the wind was east. Now it is south and it looks more threatening than ever, so we have ditched about the tent.

Rio Blanco, Colo. Aug 7, 1909

Rained more toward morning. Broke camp at 8:30 and started north through Rio Blanco P.O. to Meeker, still cloudy. About 5 miles from camp we saw ravens and three eagles. It rained soon after noon. Reached Meeker at about 5 p.m., and camped in a vacant lot in east part of town. We may get put off by the owner, but hope not. Clear and warm the latter part of afternoon. Bluebirds common here. Saw a few Say phoebes. On road Brewer sparrows and lark sparrows were abundant Doves numerous here, not so on the road. Saw two more eagles just as we reached the White River. This river is very muddy, and about 40 to 100 ft. wide now. Good water in town waterworks but somewhat alkaline. We passed back from the Wasatch formation to the Mesa Verde long before reaching White River.

Meeker, Colo., Aug 8, 1909

Rained hard during night. Bright, warm morning. Robbins and I started out at 9 a.m., going up to Flag Creek road to cross river to south side. The valley here occupies the upper Mancos formation, with Mesa Verde forming strong bluffs on North side. Dip approximately 15˚ NW. The Mesa Verde, as usual, is composed mainly of sandstones, with some shales. Several coal veins crop out along the bluffs, at least one of which is being worked. Where we reached the south side of the river a low bluff is composed of shaley sandstone like portions of the Pierre north of Boulder. The south boundary of the valley is not at all abrupt. Proceeding up valley we noted two distinct terraces on each side thus: ((drawing in field book)). Did not visit the higher one, but the lower is covered with a cap of boulders, as at Boulder. About 2 miles up the valley on south side the dip in the Mancos shales is a little east of south. There we found in abundance an Ostrea and numerous fragments of a large species of an Inoceramus which I cannot recognize. At that point the north slope was strewn with small Oreohelix (dead shells) and under Amelanchier alnifolia and Cercocarpus parvifolius (mt. mahogany) we found numbers of live ones, mostly under the former, only two or three under the latter. Collected a lot of them, thinking they may be new. Also found under a plank near a ditch a Succinea and several Agriolimax (small specimens). In the ditches and small overflow sloughs of the river Lymnaea palustris and a large Physa are abundant. Collected a few crustaceans in an irrigating ditch. Returned to camp at noon. It has been very hot walking. Had fried chicken and lemonade for dinner. In late afternoon I turned over a few logs in a pasture near camp and collected a few Euconulus, Pyramidula, Zonitoides and one Agriolimax. Vallonia not found abundantly on this trip yet, as in eastern foothills of Colorado. At 8 p.m. we had another hard rain, with strong east wind. A storm worked eastward to the south of us earlier in the evening and another worked toward us from the southwest. I believe this latter is the one that struck us but I am not sure.

Meeker, Colo., Aug. 9, 1909

Cloudy morning, and rather sultry. Robbins started out at 8 a.m. to collect plants. Terry went with him to look for fossils in the Mesa Verde sandstone bluffs north of town and I stayed in camp to wash dishes etc., as Felger wished to collect birds and mammals. About 9 a.m. W. A. Kyser (sic), who lives across the street from camp and teaches some nearby school, and J. L. Riland, editor of one of the Meeker papers and superintendent of schools, called and spent an hour. They are very pleasant gentlemen and the latter offered to supply me with specimens of vanadium, uranium etc from this region. Later Mr. Burnham, who lives 3 miles out of town, called and told us of a fossil locality on east slope of Cedar Ridge, about 4 miles east of town. After dinner Mr. Keyser hitched up his horse and took terry and me up there. The ridge is a dome fold ((Meeker Dome)), bringing the Dakota up and exposing it by the denudation of the overlying Mancos. In one place a gulch exposes Jurassic strata. To the east and west are Mancos shales. The basal Mancos on the east is composed of hard black shales, with a sandstone above containing numerous plant stems. In it I found several poorly preserved Inoceramus dissimilis and some unrecognizable Ostrea. Returned at 5:13 p.m. At about 2 p.m. it rained in camp, and sprinkled where we were, the rain coming from the southwest. Mr. Pratt, a guide, called at camp in late afternoon. Up the river I saw in addition to the usual birds, one Say phoebe, and 16 ravens in one flock. In camp, later, saw six nighthawks. Felger took a Lewis woodpecker. White tailed prairie dog common from the divide south of Piceance Creek to Meeker. Arkansas kingbird also common, but have seen few here. After supper Robbins and I went to barber shop and got baths, and I had my hair cut.

Meeker, Colo., Aug. 10, 1909

Rained again during night, but bright and warm this morning. At 8 a.m. I started to the bluffs north of town alone. Stopped at the Review office to see editor J. L. Riland. He gave me specimens of alleged brown and black gilsonite from Piceance Creek, 30 or 40 miles SW of Meeker, and uranium and vanadium impregnated sandstone from Coal Creek, 16 miles NE of Meeker. I noted two brick kilns starting west of the school house, a few hundred yards from the base of the bluffs. They are using surface clay, which is probably upper Mancos decomposed. Have made few bird notes because Felger is doing the bird work for the trip. I note the absence of house finches and lack of abundance of red wing blackbirds. Every where bluebirds (S. arctica) have been common. Piñon jays are abundant locally. A few magpies occasionally.
Went up the basal slope of the bluffs about half way from school house to the canyon west of it – northwest of school house. A little ways up the slope “float” appeared containing fossils. Followed it up nearly to first distinct sandstone. It comes from calcareous (?see) concretions in the transition beds from the Mancos to the Mesa Verde. I collected two bags full and returned to camp at 12:20. In afternoon Felger and Robbins went with me, and we got two more bags full. The lot includes Baculites ovatus, B. compressus?, Inoceramus barabini, I. sagensis, and others, Sphaeriola cordata, Placenticeras sp., Ostrea sp., Panopaea berthoudi (?), Goniomya americana, Thracia gracilis, Scaphites sp., Mytilus (?) sp., Avicula nebrascana (?), A. sp., Pecten sp., Cardium speciosum and several other species with which I am not familiar. Did not rain today, but threatened about noon. Perfectly clear at bedtime.

Meeker, Colo., Aug 11, 1909

Cloudy, soon clearing and hot. Mr. Kyser hitched up and took Terry and me down the river, where we met W. D. Blythe at his house. He had a fine Indian vessel found a few hundred yards east of his house at foot of cliff ((outline drawing of vessel in notebook)). Gave us a palm and some other leaves and showed us two horizons. The lower one, about 150 yards E of house, was clay next to (below) sandstone, contained leaves, and palm was from there. This is at least 300-400 feet above the other horizon. The next higher ridge is conglomerate, about 150 yds west, probably Wasatch. Going up gulch (north by east) we found, on east face of escarpment, Corbicula cleburni, Ostrea glabra, Melania etc. and a razor shell. Above this was larger Corbicula. This is 200 or 300 feet below the lower leaf horizon. Then we crossed to the south side, but did not find the fossil locality of which Gale wrote. On the hill south of the river and east of Meeker-Rifle stage road I found a small form of Oreohelix cooperi in abundance (dead shells) among scrub oaks, Amelanchier and mt. mahogany. Did not look for live ones. We collected 3 lizards during the day. Reached camp at 5 p.m. and packed a box of fossils for shipment.

Meeker, Colo., Aug 12, 1909

Bright hot morning Terry and I started north on foot about 8:30, Felger and Robbins going around through town with the wagons to leave the boxes which are to be shipped. Visited the low shaley sandstone ridge which starts NE of town and runs NE. It resembles portions of the Hygiene sandstone north of Boulder. It appears to be near the middle of the Mancos formation. Coming north we found the white tailed prairie dog, large ground squirrel and woodchucks abundant. Robins not very common. Say phoebe occasional. Camped just above ranch about 3 or 4 miles south of Axial P.O. about 6 p.m. Water bad. Collected woodchucks, prairie dogs and ground squirrels.

Axial, Colo., Aug. 13, 1909

Hot, bright morning. Terry and I walked down gulch to Axial P.O., 2 ¾ miles from camp. Road is about N-S. Axial is at base of Mesa Verde formation. There is a coal mine just below our camp on west side of gulch. At Axial P.O. dip 27˚ SW. The oak scrub covers north facing slopes, opposite slopes barren. No large trees about here. Then we went upstream above camp. Oreohelix cooperi (large form) abundant on slopes covered by scrub oaks and mt. mahogany. No Amelanchier (but found Amelanchier higher on slope). Only dead shells seen. Did not look for live ones. Three miles S of Axial found on E side of gulch a two foot ledge of black limestone composed almost entirely of Ostrea glabra and Anomia micronema. Opposite, on west side of gulch, found same stratum, half way up the hillside. Did not find Tulotoma thompsoni which Stanton said occur here, but the bluff where they likely occur has been badly washed by recent storms. Returned to camp at 2 p.m. Has been nearly clear and hot all day. After supper Felger and Robbins rode down to the postoffice on horseback, without saddles. Robins more common here. Saw the following today. Golden eagle, Swainson ? hawk, sparrow hawk, White throated swift ? (yesterday), rock wren common, house wren, Brewer blackbird, Meadowlark, mourning dove common, American goldfinch 2, robin common, Arkansas goldfinch, Arkansas flycatcher, cliff swallow. Evening quite cool.

Axial, Colo., Aug 14, 1909

Another bright, hot morning. Arose at 6:30. Robbins and I finished poisoning the prairie dog and spermophile skins taken the 12th. Broke camp at 11 a.m. and started to Meeker, Felger having sprained his wrist last night by a fall in mounting one of the horses bareback. Robbins shot at a badger a mile this side of camp but he got into his hole. A half mile north of the stage station which is just north of the divide at Nine Mile Draw Felger killed one. A mile north of camp we collected some fossil Corbicula. Where Felger killed the badger I collected Oreohelix cooperi, Vitrina alsakana, Vallonia sp. We lunched and fed horses at stage station at 2 p.m.. Started on at 2:45. Crossed the divide or pass from Spring Creek to Curtis Creek at 3:04. Just before crossing Felger killed a spotted spermophile. At reservoir about seven miles from Meeker, Felger killed a without the white tail, just where he killed the one on the 12th . We reached Meeker at 6:15, got supper of beefsteak, bread and butter and coffee, then skinned the Badger roughly. Not so cool as last night. Got to bed about 10:30 p.m.

Meeker Colo., Aug. 15, 1909

Got up late. Bright and hot until 3 p.m., then cooler and sprinkled. In forenoon we finished putting up badger skin In Afternoon Robbins worked on prairie dog and squirrel skins. We also aired all the bedding. For dinner we had beef pot roast, dumplings and brown potatoes. Pretty “swell” for camp life.

Meeker, Colo., Aug. 16, 1909

Sprinkled considerably during the night, but was unusually warm. Bright, hot morning. While Felger and Robbins finished putting up the mammal skins, I went up town and ordered supplies. In afternoon Robbins, Felger and I drove up town to the Review office with our specimens, got the boxes we had stored there before going to Axial, packed and shipped them. We sent one big box of mammals and birds, one of plants, and one of mollusks etc. by express and two boxes and a keg of fossils by freight, the stage company taking all to Rifle and shipping from there to Boulder. Then Felger and I sharpened axes, knives, scalpels etc. at a blacksmith shop. After that I called on Mr. Lytle ( pronounced Little), editor of the Herald, who is a member of the University Advisory Board and a former member of the legislature. Upon return to camp, I found Austin Russel and Miram Bone, of Boulder, in the tent. After supper we got most of the load repacked. It began sprinkling just before dark. It also rained when we were taking the stuff up town for shipment.

Meeker, Colo., Aug. 17, 1909

Sprinkled considerable during night. Cloudy morning, soon clearing. Started east at 9. a. m. on river road, crossing south end of dome where Dakota and Jurassic are exposed. The river debris on the terraces contains much sandstone, some granite and considerable igneous rock. Three miles east of town I collected Pisidium from a ditch by the roadside and half a mile further collected a very large water beetle, a small snake, and some tiny fish fry. About five miles from town we collected Lymnaea sp. in small ditches by the roadside. At the stone school house, where the river road turns south, we continued east for 2 or 3 miles, and camped on a small creek. A mere rivulet. At 2 p.m. after a hasty lunch we raised the tent, then Felger, Robbins and Terry started out after sage grouse, while I stayed behind to get camp ready for the night. I found small wood in abundance a short distance down the creek. It was sprinkling when the others started out and rained considerably during the afternoon. Creek rose rapidly from heavy rain up stream. We got water from an open well at a ranch house. At dusk the men returned with four sage grouse. Still partly cloudy at 9 p.m. Birds seen today, as far as I can recall: Meadowlark common, Golden eagle common(7), mt, bluebird abundant, young bobolink 2 ((? by PR, bobolinks rarely get west of Yuma County)), lark bunting 3, mourning dove common, English sparrow, Brewer blackbird, sparrow haw, barn swallow, solitary sandpiper, lark sparrow, vesper sparrow, Brewer sparrow, killdeer, ravens. Our camp is on Little beaver Creek, near John Quinton’s house.

Little Beaver Creek, Colo., Aug. 18, 1909

Partly cloudy morning, sprinkling at breakfast time, but hot during later forenoon. I skinned the worst shot of the sage grouse, a young chicken. At noon terry and I started south on foot. It began to sprinkle just after we started. At foot of S side of valley we found gully cutting black Mancos shale. Collected an Inoceramus deformis and a number of I. dissimilis (?). At top of low ridge and forming its slope is a sandstone containing many plant stems, apparently seaweeds, a few indeterminable Inoceramus and Ostrea. Beneath is are black shales again, so the sandstone forms an escarpment thus: ((drawing in field book)). I did not go to the higher ridge marked A, so am not certain of its character. On the ridge saw a poorwill. Flushed it several times. It rained most of the time on the ridge. At foot of ridge on way up we saw many dead snail shells, but none alive, on base of slope, where the black shales underlaid the surface. On the way back it was raining and live ones were crawling about by hundreds, under many kinds of bushes including sage brush, rabbit brush, scrub oak and a small sour apple. Apparently Oreohelix gabbiana and O. cooperi are mingled, the former predominating, if I am correct in assigning all without the red spiral line to that species. As many as 25 could be found under a bush two feet in diameter and the same in height. There were about as many under the sage brush as anywhere. Up the slope on the sandstone there were none seen by us, either dead or alive. Returned to campo at 5 p.m. quite wet and tired. At camp saw nighthawks and killdeer. The channels cut in the lower Mancos shales just above the sandstone, where we found the fossil Inoceramus south of camp is up to 10 ft. deep and very narrow, so narrow in places as to make very difficult walking and sides too nearly vertical to be scaled. Little Beaver Creek below camp has a channel about 8 feet deep and same width at top, about 2 feet to 4 ft. wide at bottom, and cannot be seen until close to it. Small wallows along its banks furnished our firewood. Lack of igneous and granite boulders in the stream debris is noticeable, showing that the stream flows only through sedimentaries. Upon reflection I am sure th upper sandstone horizon underlaid by black shales is the same one we searched at the dome east of Meeker a week or more ago, and is lower Mancos.

Little Beaver Creek, Colo.
Aug 19, 1909, Thursday

Broke camp at 10:45 a.m., drove back to stone school house 5 miles east of Meeker, then turned southeast up White River. Saw a few lark buntings east of school house. Partly cloudy. Where we camped there were no trees but scrub willows. When we entered the canyon we found narrow leafed cottonwoods etc. in the bottom lands cedar and scrub oaks on canyon slopes. Dakota formation forms escarpment on south side of river, sandstone at top. Found greenish hard shales or fine grained sandstone as at dome east of Meeker- possible Jurassic or maybe medial Dakota (?). Typical Morrison limestones, sandstones and greenish and maroon shales lie beneath the escarpment and rest upon reddish, thinbedded, crossbedded sandstones resembling the Lyons sandstones of southern Larimer County, but likely of later age. The river just within the canyon occupies the valley back of the Dakota escarpment. Dips here are approximately north (N by NW perhaps). Dips from Piceance Creek to here are thus: ((drawing in field book)). Collected Vallonia, Pupilla, Vitrina and Pyramidula 10 miles from Meeker, just within the canyon a mile or two. This is the first place I have found Vallonia common on the trip, I believe. We soon passed into the red beds. The grade of the canyon being less than the dip of the strata, we got rapidly into lower strata. Below the sandstone which is mentioned above and which may be the equivalent of the top of the Lykins formation in Larimer County (( probably State Bridge Formation)), are typical “red beds”, deep red sandstones and shales exactly like the Lykins north of Boulder (( probably Maroon Formation)). Exposures, as usual, are much better on north side of canyon on account of vegetation covering the slopes on the ((other)) side. There is much oak scrub on the slopes. At 2:30 we fed the horses and lunched 12 miles above Meeker. Rained from 1 to 2:15 p.m. Roads muddy. Continued on to Buford P.O., just above the forks of White River, on the North Fork, about a mile above the forks, 24 miles from Meeker, reaching there at 7 p.m. We crossed the river about two miles down, then crossed the South Fork, which was fortunate, at ((as?)) the P.O. is on the south side of the North Fork and the bridge is out over the latter. We came up all the way on the south side. Vegetation much more varied than below. Found blue and Engelmann spruce several miles down. Quaking aspens abundant on south side of canyon, north side nearly treeless, cedars having nearly disappeared below. Upon reaching the P.O. Robbins received a letter announcing the serious illness of his mother. Postmaster’s name is J. R. Bartlett, from Vermont. Alt 7200 ft.

Buford, Colo., Friday, Aug 20/09

Clear cold morning. Robbins and I arose at 5:30 and got our breakfast of bacon, pancakes and coffee. I went down gulch and collected Vallonia, Pupilla, Vitrina, Euconulus and Oreohelix cooperi in aspen groves. Found one Planorbis exacuous and some unknown bivalve in a small natural pond (probably cut-off ox-bow loop) down stream where we saw ducks last evening as we drove in. Saw one red shafted flicker, one Arkansas flycatcher, one green tailed towhee, a lot of Brewer sparrows, Brewer blackbirds and cliff swallows. Robbins left on horseback at noon for Newcastle, 40 miles distant, to catch the train and return to Boulder on account of his mother’s illness, having failed in his effort to get telephonic or telegraphic communication. Terry and Robbins caught 3 trout this forenoon and Felger put up bird skins. Felger is now (4:45) out hunting. At 6 p.m. he came in with a lot of doves and I cooked a trout supper. It has been a beautiful day. Threatening rain for a while in afternoon but not raining here. Mosquitoes are bad here. At dusk we set 3 traps for field mice, baiting with biscuit.

Buford, Colo., Saturday
Aug 21, 1909

Partly cloudy morning. Up at 7 a.m. Found 2 mice in traps. Set Terry to collecting plants in Robbins’ place. I put up the mice while Felger put up birds. At noon it rained hard and hailed for a long time and continued to drizzle for most of the afternoon. At 4 p.m. we had dinner consisting chiefly of nine mourning doves, a real treat. I boiled and washed a large number of dish cloths and towels in the afternoon. Have had wet boots all afternoon from wading in the weeds in search of dry wood. Cut down 2 dead trees. At six p.m. Felger and I set 8 traps. I found a number of Succinea sp. on logs at the water’s edge, and a single Aplexa hyperorum in the water of a small channel of the river. The river here, as below, forms numerous islands. After dark it cleared rapidly from the west and at 8 p.m. there was only a small cloud up river.

Buford, Colo. Sunday
Aug, 22, 1909

Bright morning, Two mice in traps, and tail of another. One was in the wet grass by the river side, the other under some bushes as the two yesterday, in a sage brush patch in the alfalfa field. Growth of vegetation on north slopes and irrigated meadows here is rank and profuse. I collected lots of Pupillidae, one Vallonia and some Oreohelix cooperi in aspens, having lost the bottle collected Friday. On return to camp found Joseph Hatsfield, a prospector, a friend of Mr. Riland, waiting to see me. Mr. Collins, foreman of the K-T summer camp, also called in afternoon. I collected a lot of Pyramidula, a few Vallonia, and Euconulus, and Zonitoides in a narrow leafed cottonwood grove along the river bottom opposite camp. Then spent balance of afternoon lounging around and writing postal cards. Perfectly clear and quite chilly this evening. Cumulus clouds were hanging about all day.

Buford, Colo., Aug. 23, 1909

A bright morning. I went down to stream with Felger and took three pictures- one looking up North Fork over the post office, one looking across the river and up South Fork, the third looking down the gulch at the forks of the stream. Felger shot a red tailed hawk and it dropped a big chipmunk, which I secured and skinned. I also prepared 5 skins of mice- two species. It sprinkled at times during the afternoon and as we are finishing our evening’s work (except cleaning guns and loading plate holders). At 10:45 it is very dark and cloudy.

Buford, Colo., Aug. 24, 1909.

It rained and sprinkled at intervals through the night. Partly clear at daylight. Arose at 6:30. We left all our specimens except some plants not yet dry at the post office, and forded the North Fork of the river at 10 a.m. and started up stream. Road good, but very hilly. Kept north side of river to Patterson’s ranch, about seven miles above Buford, where we crossed Fawn Creek and camped at 12:15 for lunch and to feed horses. Continued at 1:15 about half mile up on north side and crossed to south side. At Fitzgerald’s we left the river and turned southeast up Marvine Creek, calling on Fitzgerald. Simpson lives just below on the river. Continued up south side of Marvine Creek to Marvine Lodge and camped just above the lodge at 3:50. Rube Ball, who has it (the lodge) leased as a fish hatchery had just left yesterday and Mr. Billy Green was in charge. The narrow leafed cottonwood continued nearly to Fitzgerald’s I believe. Silver and Douglass spruces were common for some distance below, increasing in numbers along the river bottoms and mingled with aspens on the north slopes (south side). Aspens abundant all along on north slopes and for last few miles abundant on north slopes (sic). Several holes look like glacial topography, but saw no other evidence. Developed Robbins negatives in evening. Got to be at 9:45. Clear most of day and tonight. ((Sketch map in field book of White River from Meeker to Marvine Creek))

Marvine Lodge, Colo.,
Aug 25, 1909

Lost my fountain pen, so must use lead pencil for balance of trip. A beautiful morning. We got saddles for our horses and an extra saddle horse at the lodge and started up the creek at 9:55. Just above camp are two depressions which must be of glacial origin. The large is about 50 feet wide and 20 feet deep, nearly circular. Proceeding up gulch such depressions become more common and soon the typical hummocky topography of glaciated regions is found. Most of the depressions are dry. The stream and glacial debris is all volcanic, a dark colored lava, weathering gray, containing many zeolites, surface of many boulders pitted by solution of the zeolites. The road ends about a mile up the gulch, and a well travelled trail continues, passing in places over fallen timber. A mile and a half or two miles up above camp we found an enclosed lakelet about 150 feet long and 100 feet wide. Collected Lymnaea palustris, Valvata sp., 2 Planorbis cf. trivolvis and water bugs. At Slide lake, about five miles above camp we found trout and water snakes of the species collected down stream> That must be about 8000 feet above sea level. This lake is distinctly morainal. Lower Marvine Lake is three miles further up and much larger. We did not visit the upper lake. These lakes are situated between cliffs of lava probably 700 or 800 feet high. Felger and Terry fished. I started down stream, collected land snails under aspens. Just below Slide Lake I found a lot of dead Oreohelix cooperi and one live one. Reached camp at 6 p.m. Felger and Terry came in at 7 p.m. with 7 good sized trout which we had for supper. I set 10 traps- 6 mice traps and 4 steel traps. This has been a delightful day. Cold evening.

Marvine Lodge, Colo.,
Thursday, Aug. 26, 1909

A beautiful morning. Caught two mice and a little chipmunk. G. W. Smart, an old trapper, who has charge of the fish hatchery, called at camp this morning. Felger collected several caddis larvae cases made of Valvata shells in the pond where we collected Valvata yesterday. About 11 a.m. found a shrew in one mouse trap and a big chipmunk in a steel trap. I mounted the latter and a pine squirrel taken by Felger and Felger prepared the others. In evening Green gave us 11 fine trout, which we had for supper, and used the heads for bait for the four mink traps which Felger set. Fine day. Not so cool this evening.

Marvine Lodge, Colo., Friday, Aug 27, 1909

A mink in fine pelage in one trap, a shrew and three mice in the mouse traps. Cloudy morning. Felger and Green left at 11 a.m. on horseback with pack horses for a three day elk hunt. I prepared mink and shrew skin. At noon it began to rain and rained considerably throughout the afternoon. Cloudy and threatening at bedtime.

Marvine Lodge, Colo., Saturday
Aug. 28, 1909

Fine, bright morning. One steel trap sprung and dragged but nothing in it. Bait gone from all of them. Only one large-eared mouse and a chipmunk in the mouse traps. Terry shot two chipmunks. I skinned one and we made rough skeleton of the other and the mouse and placed them on an anthill for the ants to clean. Terry caught a trout and rebaited one mink trap and I rebaited the mouse traps with corn meal mush except one, which I baited with chipmunk meat. Tried to find the woodchuck which Terry saw yesterday, but failed. Smart also reported one below the cabins. Felger came into camp at 6:45 and left again at once. Brought Oreohelix, Vitrina, Zonitoides, Pyramidula and Thysanophora. Partly cloudy afternoon and evening.

Marvine Lodge, Aug 29, 1909

Fine mink in one of the steel traps this morning and a field mouse in a mouse trap – latter baited with corn meal mush. In late afternoon I found a very small shrew in another, also baited with mush. He was caught head in as if eating the bait. Partly cloudy all day. Felger returned at supper time without any game.

Marvine Lodge, Colo., Monday
Aug 30, 1909

Three mice in traps, the red backed one in one steel trap. We packed up and broke camp at 10:50 and drove to James Fitzgerald’s, where we got three saddles and a saddle horse and started up river to Sam T. B. Hines’. Topography glacial> At mouth of Marvine Creek we found red sandstones which continued their exposures for 10 or 12 miles up river on south bank. Reached dense pine forests on south side of river about one or two miles below Hines’ place, but quaking aspens etc. principal trees on north side. The last three miles or so we have seen no more sandstone and the glacial debris is all lava as in Marvine Creek. Reached Hines’ place at 4:05 p.m. about 15 miles above Fitzgerald’s, it is said. Dense pine timber comes down to south side of canyon to the bottom of the slope and ends abruptly. Scant tree growth on north side. Vegetation indicates about 9000 feet, I should say. Includes blue gentians so common at Silver Lake , yarrow, bright light red elder berries, dwarf willows etc. Hines says altitude is 8,500. Met a Mr. Buckingham and father, of Tennessee, who comes here often. I collected a few Oreohelix cooperi in aspens back of our tent, all dead- one so recently dead as to smell bad and containing a lot of dead young shells. Got accommodation for the nigh in a tent house and meals at Himes’ boarding-house. Saw a few red sandstone fragments in the debris on the north side of the river. The lava above here at Marvine Lakes, is distinctly stratified, with variously colored strata in the walls, red predominating.

Trapper’s Lake, Colo.
Aug. 31, 1909

Up at 6 a.m. Breakfasted at Sam Hines boarding house. Took picture of lodge. Partly cloudy, rained during night. Started for the lake, six miles up, at 8:15 a.m. Trail good for a mile or two, then steep, rocky and muddy, showing rains of last night. Glaciation more prominent as we advanced. Lava walls of canyon same as at Lake Marvine. About a mile or two below the lake we found a swamp containing great quantities of dead Pisidium sp., and Lymnaea bulimnoides, Planorbis parvus, and a larger Lymnaea but found none alive except a very few Pisidium. Further up a small lakelet contained a Lymnaea resembling L. palustris , but much shorter spire and Pisidium, the latter largely composing a few caddis larvae cases. Oreohelix cooperi we found all the way up, including even in patches of pure pine forest. Reached the lake at about 11 a.m., took some pictures and collected plants and conies. It began to rain as we were ready to start back, There were snow banks in sight at various places. Reached Sam Hines’ at 1:50 and reached our camp at Fitzgerald’s about 5 p.m., very tired and wet. Rained all afternoon until we were nearly in camp. Col. Montgomery, of Meeker, called at camp. He was up after fish from the hatchery. Partly clear at bedtime. Just above camp the aspens come to the base of the slope on the south side of the river and end abruptly, giving way to the age brush terrace just as the pine forests do up the river. That feature characterizes the river from Marvine Creek to Hines’.

Fitzgerald’s, Wednesday, Sept. 1, 1909

Arose at 5:30 and got breakfast for Felger, who started at 6:40 with Daniel Frost, for deer. Cloudy. After getting my own breakfast I began skinning mammals and worked at it steadily from 8 a.m. to 8 p.m., stopping only to eat dinner at 1 p.m. I prepared 5 cony ((pika)) skins and one rat. The latter was caught by Billy Green at Marvine Lodge. Terry put up a big field mouse caught by a cat near camp. She also caught a shrew but it was too badly mutilated to keep. At dark it was clear. Frank Hayes, a Glenwood Springs taxidermist, and Mr. Hatcher, a former student under me in the law school, called at the camp just before dark. At 10 o’clock Felger and Frost had not returned, so Terry and I went to bed.

Fitzgerald’s. Sept. 2, 1909

Cloudy morning. Felger and Frost reached camp at 12:30, having killed an elk cow and her calf. They brought in the hides, skulls and part of the meat. Walking, and packing the stuff on horses. I got up and made coffee and fried some potatoes. Got to bed again at 2 a.m. Arose at 6 and got breakfast of Elk liver, pancakes and coffee. Felger and Frost started at 8:15 horseback with two pack horse after the elk meat, accompanied by Mr. Thatcher. I employed Mr. Hayes to clean and prepare the skins, while I put up two rodent skins which Felger had skinned out at Marvine Lodge, and then after taking pictures, began repacking our load. Felger and Frost arrived at 4:30 p.m. with the meat. We got supper, packed the meat and at 6 p.m. we started for Buford with a heavy load. It was slow travelling, particularly after dark. Camped just across river from Buford P.O. at 9:20 and Felger at once began to bone the meat. It has been a warm sunny day and is not very cold tonight.

Buford, Colo., Friday
Sept. 3, 1909

Up at 6:46. I retired last night at 10:30, Felger at 12:30. Warm, bright morning. Started down river at about 11 a.m.. Before we reached the Mud Springs road bridge it began to rain and continued most of the time through early afternoon. We reached bridge at 12:20 and fed the horses. The got Henry La Kamp, a boy about a mile up the river, to put on an extra team and help us up the big hill where the Mud Spring road leaves the river canyon. The road, always steep and rocky, was also muddy and slippery because of the rain. We had a terrible time. Horse would not pull together well at first. We all helped a great deal, and were much exhausted when we reached the top a dusk and unhitched about 4 miles from the bridge. We left the elk meat, bedding and tent about half way up the hill. Felger and Henry returned to the camp ranch horseback for a light rig to bring up the rest of the load. I provided Terry with a cracker and canned peach lunch and sent him back to open up the meat to cool and stay with it. I ate a similar lunch after feeding the horse and finding a pool from which I could drink. Then I worked at repacking our load and got the portion which is here in much better shape. At 9:30 I built a fire to take off the growing chill of a September night at 8000 feet above sea level and prepared to spend the night without bedding, shelter or water to drink. The first task now is to get my boots dry, as they are wringing wet. It is now (10 p.m.) clear and beautiful, as the moon is arising above the treetops. This certainly has been a strenuous afternoon. At 11 o’clock I crawled under the wagon with the slicker about me and laid down to rest.

Mud Spring Road, Colo.
Sept 4, 1909

At 2 p.m. (sic) it got too cold for me under the wagon, so I got up, replenished the fire and laid down before it the balance of the night. An old bull kept rumbling around all night and toward morning the coyotes were noisy. At 4 a.m. it clouded up and rained gently until after daylight. I arose at 6 a.m., fried some ham, baked potatoes in the ashes and ate my breakfast. Finished packing the part of the load that is at the wagon, harnessed the horses and collected Euconulus, Vitrina and Pupillidae and saw some Oreohelix cooperi. Felger arrived at about 9 a.m. with A. J. La Kamp and son Henry, who brought up the part of the load “ditched” yesterday, with a light wagon, team and saddle horse. We got all the load to the top of the hill at 11:30, then put it on our wagon and proceeded with our team only. About 1 p.m. we fed the horses at Mud Spring. The water was cold and good. Road quite hilly from there south until one started into gulch leading into Dry Elk Creek, after which it is down grade to Newcastle. Reached Newcastle-Rifle Gap road about seven miles above Newcastle. It began to rain just before starting down grade and continued until we reached town at about 9 p.m. Road was slippery, badly washed and the latter part of the trip so dark that Terry walked ahead with the lantern for safety. Still storming when we had gotten a bath, supper at a restaurant and to bed at midnight.

Newcastle, Colo.
Sept. 5, 1909

Still raining, continued all day. Felger left at about 10 a.m. Terry and I packed our outfit, consisting of about 23 boxes and bundles. Finished at about 3 p.m. Then I wrote letters. Terry left for Boulder at 5 p.m.. In evening it was cloudy but not raining. I retired at 7:45, very tired.

Newcastle, Colo.
Sept 6, 1909
Raining this morning. I arose at 6:15, got breakfast, By 8 a.m. I had gotten all our material down to the depot and shipped it – 19 boxes and bundles by freight and seven by express. It quit raining about 10 a.m.. All trains on both roads are far behind time, so have put in the time figuring up expenses of the trip, reading the papers, and strolling about town. Total shipments of the trip including camp outfit but excluding personal baggage in form of suitcases 36 boxes and bundles. Left Newcastle at 4:25 on Colorado Midland R.R. At Newcastle the Grand River cuts through into the Mesa Verde formation. Above Newcastle it occupies the Mancos, which is largely covered by debris of the broad river valley, but well exposed by a ridge a few miles up on south side of river. The south canyon wall is Mesa Verde with coal mines. North wall shows red beds, into which we soon passed, so that walls were of hard red sandstones, probably Carboniferous. Toward Glenwood Canyon swung around and formations changed, but I do not know what they are. Reached Glenwood Springs at 4:55. Raining when we left Newcastle, still raining. I walked up to school house in SE part of town turned and climbed east wall of canyon. Found Oreohelix gabbiana abundant and probably O. cooperi, but no haydeni. Walked north along foot of canyon wall to NE part of town, about east of Rio Grande depot and found O. haydeni and probably O. cooperi mixed together. Did not look for live shells and did not climb slope here. Vegetation mostly mt. mahogany and scrub oak below, conifers above. No pictures on account of rain. Left Glenwood at 6:45. No sleeper accommodations and no seats except in smoker, on account of all trains being delayed and passengers thereby accumulated on this one.

(( End of notebook 3))


About Rob

Three "B's" of importance: biodiversity, bikes and bunnies. I get to express these "B's" in neat ways --- I bike to a job at the University of Florida where I am an Associate Curator of Biodiversity Informatics. Along with caretaking collections, I also have a small zoo at home, filled with two disapproving bunnies.
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