Field Notes of Junius Henderson. Transcribed by Peter Robinson, 2001. comments in double parentheses (( )) added by PR, and parenthetical statements by Henderson in the notebook itself are in single parentheses ( ). I have translated all his “+” marks to “and”, have written (sic) after words where I think there are grammatical/spelling errors, have italicized the Linnaean names, and have placed an interrogation (?) where I am not sure of the orthography.
July 28, 1905. Saw Say Phoebe and Siskins, Robin, Flicker.
July 29, Saw Say Phoebe, Hear a Robin at 11:30 last night
July 30, Saw Say Phoebe
July 31, heard Siskin at noon at Court House, have seen none for a week. Expenses Florissant trip, 2 tickets to Denver Dr. Ramaley and I —-$2.00. Saw a Kingbird and Robin on way to depot. Left Boulder with Dr. Ramaley at 5:15 p.m., reached Denver about on time. Stayed at Oxford Hotel to be near depot in the morning. Went to City Park and heard band and saw moving pictures including “Stage Robbery” which, to say the least, was not an elevating spectacle, nor helpful to venturesome boys, apt to be carried away with the wildness of such a life.
August 1. Special rate, Denver to Florissant, $4.50, pd $9.00 for Ramaley and I. Left Denver at 9:40 (40 min. late) on Colo. Midland (via C & S) for Florissant. A few miles before Castle Rock appeared scrub oaks on hills and long leafed pines in valleys. In valleys we saw perfectly stratified horizontal formations, with hills capped by hard horizontal rocks. Further north recognized Niobrara Ridge, Dakota Ridge and Triassic Ridge to the west of the RR. In one place, rocks like Boulder Red Rocks – possibly a short resistant zone in the Jura. Apparently the oaks are southern species pushing northward from New Mexico, hence occupying dry positions, while the pines, pushing out from the mountains seek more moist situations, but a little further south the pines mingle with the oaks in dryer situations and also appear on rocky ridges, as at Boulder. The oak line is sharply drawn. They do not encroach at all upon the lower part of the valleys which are open brush less meadows with occasional sharply defined patches of oak brush. A few miles before reaching palmer Lake trees disappear to some extent from the valleys. The rocks to the NW of RR are abrupt and carved into turrets and monuments. Do not recognize the formation. Palmer Lake is right up against the foothills, but does not seem an attractive place. The foothills appear to be Dakota sandstone. Only birds recognized to Colo. Springs were magpies, and a few redwing blackbirds and many mourning doves. Left Colo. Springs at 12:20, 50 minutes late. Seats all filled. Did not dine but got a little fruit. from Manitou we traveled through what appeared to be Paleozoic rocks below the Jura Trias. The Paleozoic, if such, resting upon granite, which granite continued from then on, climbing rapidly. Saw dippers soon after entering the granite gorge. More open above Cascade , alt 7500. 15 miles from Colo. Springs closes in again near Green Mountain Falls but continued even more meadowy beyond there like Estes Park. Prairie dog town between Green Mt. Falls and Woodland Park about 8000 ft., occurring even among the long leaf pines. Aspens appeared at 8400 ft. Probably a northern plant, hence not found as low here as at Boulder. Spruces also appeared at 8400 or 8500 ft. Prairie dogs again at Edlorne (?) 8950 ft. Top of divide between S. Platte and Arkansas drainage open and rolling along RR with scattered groves of pines and spruces 9200 ft. alt. 1 magpie here. Red Gilia and (?) here with Potentilla fratrosa (?). At Florissant Lark buntings, Mt. Bluebirds, cliff swallows, barn swallows, brewer’s blackbird, lark sparrows, flicker, English sparrows. Sta. 2. Lava dyke at NE corner of town very badly shattered and weathered breaking onto rather flat, irregular pieces, very unstable underfoot and in one place greatly broken, opening up crevices from 2 to 10 ft. wide and as deep, filled to that depth with debris, 80 ft. above creek bed. Sta.1 Fossil leaves at point NW of hotel in several strata immediately beneath strata of volcanic ash and sand. Prairie dogs at Florissant 8100 ft. Sta. 3. Up first gulch ward N of Sta. 1. Florissant Lake basin is a mountain park divided by a ridge into two portions. The surrounding mountains are not as high and abrupt as at Estes Park but more rolling, and streams are small. Can jump across the two streams at Florissant postoffice (sic) now. The old lake beds so far as we saw them today are mere remnants of former more extensive beds, and contain many bands of volcanic ash and sand, the main portion of the beds, except in patches along the edges of the marginal hills, having been eroded away. Igneous dykes border the old lake basin at various places, but as yet see no connection between these and the volcanic debris in the lake beds. I believe the igneous rocks are older.
Aug. 2 Went up track to RR cut E of town. River terrace in Lake beds there dissected by numerous gullies cut from top of mesa to base. Bright clear comfortable morning. Heard flickers calling and Brewer’s blackbirds singing as I worked. Sta. 4. RR cut just around point E. of Florissant. Leaves plentiful in a narrow stratum half way to top of cut, but few good specimens comparatively. I cut a diagonal furrow from the top of the cliff well down into the talus and found leaf bearing zones an inch or two in thickness alternating with barren zones of greater thickness. The fossiliferous zones were somewhat persistent, so far as I examined. Calcite bands and yellowish strata so and pronounced at Station 1 were absent here. Strata quite wet in places, upon digging in.
Station 4 ((5)) next cut above Station 3 ((4)) being through a sort of breccia or conglomerate of (apparently) an igneous rock containing quartz pebbles. Do not exactly understand it. Further up the RR and consequently a little higher appears a 25 foot exposure of coarse, rudely stratified rather angular gravel including at least one continuous bed of water worn boulders. The strata are nearly horizontal and are truncated by the slope of the hill at the west. Next cut up the hill is in granite, the gravels resting upon the granite. Collected about 275 specimens at station 4 ((5)) today. Hot a.m., cool, cloudy p.m. ((in text for Aug 3rd Henderson corrects 3 to 4 and 4 to 5))
Aug. 3. Hot, bright morning. Went up creek after breakfast, found another lava breccia on banks of creek west of stations 4 and 5. Packed the remainder of the fossils at station 4 and brought them down. The bluebirds here are either western or chestnut backed, instead of mountain bluebirds. Saw a marsh hawk, say phoebe, and v. g. swallow, long crested jay. Started down to Lake George at 8:40 a.m. with horse and buggy. Lake about 5 miles below Florissant. On way saw rounded knobs which looked as if they were of glacial origin, but have found no moraines here. At head of Lake George, which is an artificial lake said to have been made ice purposes etc. about 15 years ago, found caddis larva. Also found Limnaea similar to those from Meeker, in great abundance, but only on the delta. Found a few dead shells further down the lake shore but none alive there. In the mouth of Twin Creek found a few Physa, smooth like P. integra, lying on the gravel, very hard to see. The Limnaea were on the muddy bottom of the delta, nearly all adult, but smaller specimens, probably young of same species, were found abundantly for a few hundred feet up the creek. At outlet of the lake, in a seepage pool just below the dam, were great numbers of Limnaea, alive, mingled with dead shells of a large Physa, but I could find none of the live Physas. The lake is formed by a dam thrown across the South Platte River shortly below the mouth of the stream which runs past Florissant. At the upper end are forming just such beds of fine mud as compose some portion of the Florissant lake beds. The beds were very much cracked, many of the cracks being an inch or two wide and nearly a foot deep, dividing the mud into blocks from a few inches to 3 feet across. The waters of the South Platte flow through Granite Canyon and enter the lake quite roilly (sic), and leave the lake in about the same condition, but soon gather great quantities of sediment from the fine silt of the valley and becomes (sic) very muddy-almost black, which condition continues as far we drove down the river- a mile or two. Near the western end of Florissant lake basin we found an incline shaft cut to a depth of about 5o feet through the tertiary lake beds, and 30 or 40 feet of the beds exposed above the shaft. The whole capped by what may be a crumbling stratum of volcanic ash 3 or 4 feet in thickness. We found a shaft sunk also at the base of the east wall of the igneous dyke north of Florissant postoffice (sic), which we are told was sunk in search for gold by a man who claimed to have found a shaft already started, presumably by the original inhabitants, with timbers left therein. It is more probable that he found one of the holes left by the crevicing of the rocks before mentioned , and possible (sic) found timbers used by Indians or prospectors in preparing the hole for shelter purposes. But I cannot imagine why the shaft was sunk in the lake beds. Saw a kingfisher. Daniel Nevitt, the hotel keeper says the shaft above mentioned was sunk in search of coal because the shales got blacker as depth increased. He also says the Platte is generally not so muddy. Saw a bat last night and another this evening.
Aug. 4 Yesterday and the day before the sun was intensely hot and dazzling in the forenoon, but clouds relieved the intensity of the heat in the afternoon. In spite of the intense heat and some hard work I have sweat almost none. I feel my skin drying up. It is cool at all times in the shade-almost too cool- even when the sun’s rays are hottest. This is a very bright morning. Breakfasted at 6:30 as usual. Dr. Ramaley changed dryers on his plants and we started south to the fossil stump with buggy at 8:30 a.m. Terribly hot in the sun. A male and female redwing blackbird passed the hotel before we started-the first we have seen here, though Brewers blackbird is quite common. Heard a chickadee, but too far away to determine the species. We found the old trenches near the fossil stump filled with debris. Tried to dig down to the fossil beds we wished to reach with picks alone but it was such slow work I asked Dr. Ramaley to go back to the village with the horse and buggy and bring a shovel and bucket of water as working in the heat without water was too much for me. I dug a diagonal trench at the north end of the hill while he was gone. After lunch we began a cross cut to reach the lowest part of the former workings, which gives us a fine section. Worked hard all afternoon taking turns with pick and shovel, but found only 4 insects, though about 200 good fossil leaves, some of them being very fine. The formation there is capped by several feet of consolidated volcanic ashes. The fossil stump is about 6 or 8 ft in diameter. 3 saws broken off in the attempt to saw it up for transportation to the World’s Columbian Exposition still remain in the stump. Near it is a large fossil log nearly buried. Got back to hotel at 6:30. Lunch 10›, cotton 10›, twine 5›. The fossil stump above referred to is on a hill left by the erosion of the Lake Beds in the southern portion of the Basin and tradition has it that his measurements of the strata were made at the northwest corner of the hill.
Another bright, hot morning. The RR people keep 3 or 4 engines steamed up here all the time to help trains up the steep grade to Divide. They must waste much coal, as the escape valves hiss by the hour. I had a very narrow escape from the loss of an eye yesterday. While digging in very hard rock with the big pick a piece of rock struck me a terrific blow an inch over the eye, the flat side striking, so that it did not cut much, but dazed me for a moment or two. An inch lower would have struck the right lens of my glasses, the result of which could not be safely predicted. Saw a sparrow hawk. It clouded shortly after noon and sprinkled more or less during the afternoon. We finished the cross cut at the fossil stump, but found comparatively little. Made a cross cut at the northeast corner of same hill, which is locally reported to be the point of which Prof. Scudder gave a section in his monograph, but did not find the strata at all conformable to his section. It seems certain that is not the place. Went to the S end of the Park and over into the Arkansas drainage. If it be true, as is supposed, that the ancient lake drained at one time southward into the Arkansas, but was afterwards turned westward into the South Platte, the uprising ridge must have crossed the valley either at the very end of the lake or a little way into the lake, as we found lake beds involved with igneous rocks and granite at what we took for the former terminus, showing in at least one place considerable movement just north of the present divide between the Arkansas and South Platte drainage. On the Arkansas side of the divide we found a park which may have originally included the lake, but we saw no sedimentary deposits there, while in all portions of what we know to have been included we find numerous outcrops. The topography there is also somewhat different, particularly in respect to the lack of steep slopes and mountain walls. It may be that there are lake beds there, but unexposed on account of gentle slopes not favoring erosion.
Fine, bright, Sunday morning, but threatens a hot forenoon. Haven’t slept at all well this trip. Am tired and sore from the hard rock work of Friday and Saturday and my catarrh has been very bad for several days on account of getting heated in the forenoon, then chilled by the sudden cooling of the atmosphere in the afternoon, accompanied by wind and sprinkles of rain, this occurring every day. Mr. Nevitt, the hotel keeper, gave us some specimens of quartz and amazon stone crystals this morning from Topaz Peak, sometimes called Crystal Mt., due north of Florissant. He also accompanied me to some fossil beds SW of the hotel, about a mile, this morning, where we did a little exploring, preparatory to tomorrow’s work. In walking past Station 1 this evening I noticed that the dip is NW which conforms to the idea of an uplift from the SE. Have not noticed any dip before. 2 night hawks very tame, apparently nesting, as they circled over one spot and soon alighted after we looked away.
Bright warm morning. Started for the fossil beds at 8:15 a.m. Did not succeed very well at the place 1 mile SW of town, but got nearly 100 leaves and a few insects. We closed our collecting at 1:30 p.m. and brought our outfit to the hotel where we began packing. The fossils are all first wrapped in paper and packed in pasteboard boxes, these boxes to be packed in wooden boxes. The rock and mineral specimens are to go into wooden boxes loose. Discovered strong dip to the NW at our morning station, while nearby it was strong to the SW. Saw mourning doves and house wrens. Got specimens packed in 4 wooden boxes. Went to spring in evening and were caught in hard rain. The afternoon was clearer than usual. Am completely used up by the heavy digging for the last week and am heartily glad we are through.
Bright morning but soon clouded. Am spending the day chiefly in resting from the fatiguing work recently done. Saw robins yesterday and today and a meadowlark Sunday evening. Shore bird common here has tip-(?) habit, white belly darker breast and neck, white of belly extending upwards slightly in front of wing-above uniform brownish bill about 1 inch long. Hotel and livery, Ramaley and I for 8 days- $17.00. Train seven hours late so Mr. Nevin for $2.00 drove us to Divide to catch the Cripple Creek-Denver train. On the road we saw grayheaded juncos. Just before reaching Divide we saw what appeared to be moraine, the first we have seen on the trip. It is possible that a glacier from Pike’s Peak may have reached as far as this, though the boulders may have been from streams. Train at divide was late, made us miss train at Colorado Springs, and as the later train was quite late we went to the Alamo Hotel and stayed all night, first going to college grounds and to Stratton Park where we heard fine music by Colorado Midland band. Supped at Depot restaurant, an excellent by high priced place.
Cool morning but got warm. Breakfasted at Depot restaurant, caught train to Denver at 7:30 a.m., half hour late. Lunched at Oxford and caught 1 p.m. train for Boulder.
End of Florissant Trip
Silver Lake- Arapahoe Trip
Aug. 29, 1905
Finished packing and loaded wagon in evening-last evening-putting tents over load to keep it dry. The load is a heavy on for two horse over a bad road. This morning opens bright and warm. Saw a phoebe in back yard before starting. H. F. Watts, F. G. Henderson, Harvey R. Markman, Sievert Rohwer and I started by narrow gauge C & N at 9:35 for Silver Lake Siding, the wagon having gone early – Al Anderson’s wagon and good team. Train consisted of four cars to Sunset, then 2 cars to Silver Lake Siding which we reached at 11:45 p.m. (sic), 15 minutes late. At((e)) lunch at the brook NE of the siding and collected a few Pisidium abditum (No.1) in the brook. Then started up the hill. Began raining on Ralston Peaks before we left the train. Sprinkled at intervals during afternoon and at bed time was warm and sprinkling with no wind. Watts and I reached Silver Lake at 3 p.m. Thinking that the other three and the team would be there but they were not, so Watts came on to select camp and I started back. Soon met Markman who said they had taken the wrong trail soon after leaving us while we were waiting to see if the wagon was coming. He had soon seen some men who had told him his mistake and promised to send others back, but they kept on until their trail played out, then through dead timber till the((y)) struck Camp Albion road where they were directed across to Silver Lake. I walked rapidly until I met the wagon about 4 miles back. We were unable to get to Goose Lake on account of logs across the road but arrived at the new city sawmill, head of Island lake about 6 p.m. where the boys had built a leanto, thinking perhaps we might not reach them. We got everything dry, put up two tents, Watts putting his cot and most of the out fit in one tent while we spread pine boughs in the other and laid very comfortable beds of blankets, quilts and canvass (sic). Markman is now putting up a Brewer Sparrow as I write these notes by a campfire preparatory to going to bed. Only birds seen were a long crested jay, Clark Crows, Rocky Mt, jays, chickadees, juncos, Mt. Bluebirds. Sievert saw a flicker. Watts is to sleep on his cot in the supply tent while the rest of us sleep in the other tent.
Aug. 30 -05
Rained during the night more or less, and the poor quality of the tents was manifest by the way the drops splattered through. All started for the glacier at 7:15 a.m. and made a slow trip. Collected small caddis cases and larva (No. 2) in stream from North Lake near High Fall, and some insects just above High Fall. The party showed fatigue in the following order: Sievert least, I next, then Watts, Then Markman, then Frank. Sievert and I went on ahead and climbed out of the cirque at The Saddle to photograph the glacier and the range. It is a fearful climb, the loose rock sliding at every step. Were much exhausted upon reaching the top and laid down for a few moments, then took two pictures and returned to the cirque to join Frank and Watts. Ate a few malted milk tablets and raisins while sitting on a boulder on the glacier. We easily found the tablets set last year. They were set as follows: No. 1 100 paces from the bench mark on Country Rock above NE moraine and 100 paces from edge of ice at that point. From No.1 to No. 2 was 89 ft; No. 2 to No.3 was 51.7 ft; No. 3 to No. 4 was 58.6 ft.; No.4 to No. 5 was 65.4; No. 5 to No.6 was 82.8 ft; No. 6 to No. 7 was 84.4 ft; No.7 to No. 873.8ft; No.8 to No.9 was 97.2 ft.; No. 9 to No. 10 was 114.4 ft.; the latter was just below the crevasses near the center of the glacier where the flow should be greatest. We found the tablets and accompanying boulders had moved as follows: No. 1 -11.15 ft; No.2 -11.9 ft;. No.3 -13ft; No.4 -15.9 ft; No. 5 – 16.75ft; No.6 -18.5 ft; No.7-20.6 ft: No. 8- 20.45 ft; No.9 21.7ft; No.10 – 27.7 ft. We also found unmistakable evidence of waste all along the front of the glacier except just west of the terminal lake, at which latter point it remained unchanged. At the big boulder on the north east moraine it had shrunk away at least 4 or 5 feet vertically. The medial moraine between that point and the terminal lake showed much more plainly and the same was true of the drainage basin west of the terminal lake. More ice was exposed than we have seen except in 1902, while there is more snow in many other places than last year, I believe. The photos will enable us to definitely decide that question by comparison. We found numerous insects, dead and alive, on the glacier, particularly abundant on the dead south branch and collected quite a number. Frank found a good mountain sheep head in the moraine at a point opposite The Saddle and Sievert and I brought it down with infinite toil, as we were already loaded down with cameras, including one big one, tripod, hammer, rocks etc. Just before leaving the glacier it hailed hard and at intervals all the way down it rained and hailed terrifically, with crashes of thunder. The brush was so wet we were soon soaked through. Sievert and I reached camp at 5:30 about half an hour after Frank and Markman, who started down long before us and with Watts whom we had overtaken. Watts and I were on our “last legs” but the others were not so tired. I felt the trip more than I ever have before, though kept up well on the way up. Carrying the heavy load without pack harness used me up and Watts probably felt the altitude, as usual the first day out. Had fried eggs for supper and they were good. Watts ate no supper. Ed Housel and another man from the sawmill called in the evening. It rained again as we were going to bed. Birds seen today Clark’s Crow and Rocky Mt jay, chickadees and juncos common up to High Fall. Above there pipits common, especially on glacier. At Saddle, Leucostictes (brown capped). Several undetermined hawks in the gulch. Pikas abundant from Goose Lake to Glacier.
Aug. 31 -05
Bright, windy morning. Boiled and then fried potatoes and bacon with smoke in eyes. Arose at 6:45 soon followed by the others and we spread out our wet clothes and shoes to dry. Markman began collecting crustacea before breakfast and continued after breakfast, while Frank and Sievert played cribbage and Watts started after mixomycetes. Collected caddis larva cases No. 3 on rocks not well attached, very loosely constructed of sticks placed horizontally. No. 4 of same style but very small; No. 5 of sand and mica, tapering rapidly less than half an inch long; No. 6 water beetle; No. 7 sticks with something on. No. 8 smooth, large caddis case of sand found in sand at bottom of lake; No. 9 Caddis cases of sand at bottom of water unattached. No. 10 includes one which has just shed its skin. Watts climbed a spruce tree and cut off its top for a big witche’s (sic) broom. Got long tailed chickadee and mountain chickadee, the latter with the first shot from the Gale gun. Collected insect galls from willow and huckleberry, and fungus on birch. At camp there are 6 ridges, parallel, within 100 yards running N 50ø E, a characteristic of this entire country from Silver Lake to High Fall, as well as the Camp Albion Gulch. The whole valley topography is glacial, but the direction of these ridges was undoubtedly predetermined by the lithology, probably hard and soft zones. Rained for a few moments in afternoon, but sun set nearly clear just as Sievert returned without fish. The sun’s rays have been very hot all day but quite cool after sundown.
September 1, 1905
White frost this morning. A pot sitting in the open which contained hot water at bedtime was covered by thin ice at sunrise. Another pot containing less cold water and one containing less hot water, neither of them was frozen. Up to this time (2:25 p.m.) there has not been a cloud in the sky, so far as I have seen. The sun’s rays are hot but a cool breeze makes it almost too cool in the shade. Frank and Sievert went fishing before sunrise, returning at 10:00 a.m. without fish. Watts started to walk to the train just before they arrived. Markman and I started up the canyon just after breakfast. He took the shotgun and auxiliary table I took Gale’s gun, the camp pack, camera, tripod, pick etc. Parted with Markman at Goose lake as he wanted to do some collecting there. I went up the south fork to North Lake where I ate a sandwich at 11 a.m., collected two pipits, some plants and a heavy load of garnetiferous granite, hornblende rock, etc. Had the pack and my hands full, about all I could carry. Took 3 photos and reached camp a little before 2. p.m. Markman not here yet. The snowbanks west of North Lake are crevassed, the crack probably being in the nature of the Bergschrund. As they cannot be called glaciers, it shows that crevasses above are not sufficient to indicate a glacier. Found numerous NE dykes similar to those near camp, but larger, some being so situated in the north gulch as to almost cross the track of the former glacier. Found one fair sized empty Pisidium shell and at the same place an empty land snail shell in a small stream near high fall. Markman saw a flicker up gulch and we both saw juncos, (warblers unidentified) and a sandpiper (spotted?). Markman returned at 4 p.m. having collected only a junco. A few clouds appeared at 5 p.m. Wind has been quite variable today but for the most part easterly. Perfectly clear at bedtime and not cold.
Sep. 2 – 05
White frost this morning and thick ice on the water pail between the tents. Cirrus clouds scattered in all directions at 8 a.m. Markman started at 6 a.m. to collect birds. Sievert started at 8 a.m. for the top of ridge south of lake to collect insects and see the country. Frank and I started for Silver lake Siding at 9 a.m. to meet John Andrews, picking wild raspberries on the way and arriving there (7 miles) at 11 a.m.. Took camp pack to carry up stuff. Train was nearly an hour late and John did not come but conductor, without stopping, put off a basket containing cocoa, evaporated cream, bottles, a package for Sievert and 4 cantaloupes. We ate two cantaloupes and a sandwich at the cabin spring, and left there at 1 p.m., reaching the first crossing of North Boulder at 2 p.m., where we rested 10 minutes. Reached Silver Lake at 2:36 and camp at 3 p.m. Markman returned at 1 p.m. with a bagful of birds and mammals including Douglas ? squirrel, , a merlin, etc. I saw white crowned sparrows and what I took for Audubon warbler. I don’t like the way the clouds are acting. At 3:15 I went down to the Island Lake Dam and collected water beetles, leaches (sic) and other “beasts”, returning at 5:25. Sievert returned at 4 p.m. with a lot of insects and a cony (sic) which was killed by a hawk. Saw flickers and warblers. Island lake is drained quite low and men under direction of Mr. Buffham are building up the dam, so I did not succeed in getting specimens of Sphagnum. The dead Sphagnum made a vertical wall 1 « to 2 ft high all around the lagoons.
Sep 3 – 05
It cleared in the night and west wind cleared away the clouds as well as the smoke of Denver smelters which had drifted in on the SE wind. Arose at 7:45. Markman started up lake to collect insect larva in a pool near the Goose Lake dam. At 9:10 Frank and I started for the train to meet John . At last creek crossing at 10 a.m. and at siding at 11:10, only stopping for water twice. Saw several hawks and collected some butterflies and moths. Stratus clouds scattered through the sky. Wind SE. Very warm in sun but breeze tempers suns rays and makes a coat comfortable in the shade. Train again so late as to afford ample opportunity for philosophic meditation upon the motives which inspire railroad people to advertise time which they do not expect to make except under rare circumstances. Train arrived at 1:05, 1 h 35 min. late. I carried the water melon in the pack and Frank carried the telescope containing pies etc. to the cabin spring , where we ate the melon sandwiches eggs etc. and started on at 2 p.m. Reached the creek at 3 p.m. rested 10 minutes and started on, John, Frank and I taking turns with the pack, arriving at camp at 4 p.m. Markman was here with Phyllopods, worms, larva, leaches, Pisidium etc. from polls above Goose lake (No. 11). I have labelled some larva from Island Lake No. 12. The clouds mostly cleared off by sundown and it got cool as usual. West half of sky clouded all over at bedtime.
Sep. 4, 1905
At daylight sky overcast with even, gray clouds. Soon after it began raining, continuing for 2 hours. Soon after breakfast rain began again and continued till 10 a.m. and at intervals until noon. Sun at times tried to break through. Violent wind on range from west and fog low on Mts. , but not cold. At 1:20 it looked like clearing, so Sievert and I started for ridge N of camp with camera and pick, Gale gun and insect net. From timber line could see clouds hanging over valley and foothills as well as mts. Collected a fern new to me. Brought back a heavy camp pack load of rocks and several birds. Nearly clear at dark. We returned at 6:15 very tired and had supper at 7. Wind has been west the greater part of the day, but at times easterly.
Sep. 5, 1905
Clouds hanging low over Arapahoe and most of the sky partly overcast. With strong west wind, which, however, did not reach camp. Risking a storm, John, Sievert and I, we started for the glacier and peak at 7:05 a.m. Were at foot of high fall at 8:15 and some distance above it at 8:35. Cool delightful travelling. The stream from the glacier shows the effect of cool, cloudy weather in the very greatly diminished flow of water. Clouds have hung over the glacier all day yesterday and today, but last nigh no ice formed at camp. Reached glacier in blinding sleet storm. Visited some of the largest crevasses. Ate lunch on the moraine, collected a lot of rocks and started for the saddle. Had to cut about 50 steps in the ice to reach the saddle. Hard work. Reached top of peak at 1 p.m. in blinding snowstorm but son cleared. John got sick at the top an vomited on way down. Terminal lake as green with rock flour as the next one below. We carried very heavy loads of rock down which with John’s sickness made a very slow trip down. Heard Moffit (sic) train whistle on the peak. Goose Lake has fallen 1 « ft. since last Wednesday. Reached camp at 4:15 and found Mr. Eggleston here with Al Anderson’s team to take us home in the morning, so began packing rocks, plants, insects etc.
Sept. 6, 1905
Arose at 6 a.m. and some began packing while others got breakfast. Got wagon loaded and started at 9:15. John rode to Bluebird road, whence we all walked down to North Boulder Falls, where we ate lunch at 11 a.m. Were caught in several showers and hail storms, taking shelter under trees and reaching Silver Lake Siding at 1 p.m. where Markman shot an Audubon or Myrtle warbler. Rained again just after reaching the siding. Hard rains extended clear out in the valley. Lack of sunlight prevented collecting insects on way down as we had hoped. Caught train at 2:20 p.m. Am perplexed by the entire absence of robins on this trip. Reached Boulder at 4:45, shaved, and after supper went to office for my mail and then to University to see that collections were properly taken care of.
Pawnee Butte Trip
Wednesday June 6, 1906 Boulder, Colo.
Spent the afternoon sorting camping outfit and began packing wagon at Hale Bldg., University campus, at 8:45 p.m. Very windy last night and again tonight. Thursday June 7, 1906 Gideon S. Dodds, Harvey C. Markman, Harry Clatworthy and I left Boulder in a camp wagon at 8:50, two riding in front and two behind. Broke a spring when about two miles north of town. Cut a block, blocked it up and went on, stopping to collect but little except a species of flax which I had not seen before, and some Pupa, Vallonia etc. at Six Mile Creek. Some of us walked considerable of the time. Reached Left Hand Creek at 12:10 and dined at 1:30, and were on the road again at 2:07.Went into camp at 4:30 p.m., on the St. Vrain in a place partially sheltered from the wind by timber. Has been a cold, windy, disagreeable day. Has snowed on the range in the neighborhood of Arapahoe Peak for two or three days. Saw Pike’s Peak and it was white with fresh snow. Saw redwinged blackbirds, saw numerous young; robins very common, lark buntings abundant, young out; lark sparrows, killdeer 12 or 15, mourning doves common, cliff swallows common, yellow warbler, magpies a few, meadowlarks abundant, vesper sparrows, wren sp., kingfisher at St. Vrain, barn swallows common, kingbird 1.
Friday June 8
Too cold to sleep well last night, so got up late. Finished breakfast at 8 p.(sic) m., Dodds and I collected plants in St. Vrain creek bottom just below Lyons all forenoon. Also collected some Mollusca. Zonitoidea arboreans plentiful under a narrow leafed poplar log. Markman and Harry out after birds etc. Went back up creek and collected Vallonia sp., Oreohelix strigosa and a few O. albofaciata at end of Dakota sandstone ridge. Dodds took pictures of valley. Left camp after a late dinner for crossing of Little Thompson Creek. Dodds and Markman went to Hygiene with the wagon to ship the plant collections (including a fine collection of fungus) to Dr. Ramaley at Boulder who is to attend to drying, arranging and labelling them. Harry and I crossed the headland formed by the big fold in the Dakota sandstone, travelling afoot. The heat was terrific. By the time we reached the Little Thompson Creek at the end of the Niobrara ridge we were very tired. We took off our boots, dangled our feet in the stream for ten minutes, got a good drink of water, and went our way much refreshed. Found a cache left by me several years ago when there with Prof. Spangler, containing several very large Inoceramus deformis, showing great deformity of the shell. Collected some concretions of crystalline marcasite, loaded the Inoceramus into bags and started down stream to meat the team which was to travel north from Hygiene. Our loads were very heavy and we were thoroughly fatigued. We found a ranch but they either knew nothing or were unwilling to part with the information. They told us the road running north from Hygiene was a mile further downstream, so we resumed our weary march, quite discouraged. When we reached the road we waited until a team came along. The driver seemed to know the country, and told us the folks would surely reach the creek at the very ranch where we got such bad advice, and that he saw the wagon travelling in that direction. We wearily cached our load and turned back , but soon saw the wagon coming. Reached a camping place in time to set up tents, make beds etc. before dark and ate supper by firelight, or rather lantern light. Then we sat around the campfire until 10 p.m. and then retired.
Little Thompson Creek Saturday June 9, 1906
Slept late in morning. Got a better night’s rest than before. We were some of us so cold in the night, though Harry complained of being cold because he had my tarpaulin under him, when he could well have had two or three folds over him. We emptied the wagon and Dodds and I took the empty wagon, leaving the others at camp, and went up the creek nearly to the basal Niobrara ((Fort Hayes ls.)). The upper Niobrara is badly folded and probably faulted. Dodds went nearly to the basal limestone and reports narrow, sharp folds, the apex eroded into sharp ravines cutting through the yellow upper shales ((Smoky Hill)) into the darker shales. Further east the shales round into abroad fold, then dip away sharply under the Pierre. At one point is a flat topped hill of Pierre Shale close to the creek, capped by sand and boulders, evidently isolated from the debris sheet of the plains border by erosion. A little W of N from the hill, across a broad valley, upper Niobrara dips SW very slightly, then further E it flattens, then dips to SE, then to east for a long ways thus ((drawing in field book)). This causes an escarpment for a long ways along the foothills, most of the way from Little Thompson to Big Thompson and probably further, the upper Niobrara being somewhat resistant, the overlying Pierre being eroded away. ((Drawing in field book)). We found no fossils in upper Niobrara except the bands of Ostrea congesta crowded on flattened Inoceramus sp. Just as they occur between Boulder and Left Hand Creeks. The basal limestone contains large numbers of Inoceramus deformis covered with Ostrea congesta, some of them (the Inoceramus) quite large. At the next cut through the Niobrara the shales are badly involved in places vertical, and a small stream cuts through the entire series of lower Pierre, in which I found only three poorly preserved Inoceramus barabini. Ian an exposure of Pierre nearly east of the SE point of the upper Niobrara there are many specimens of Baculites ovatus and Inoceramus barabini, usually poorly preserved, though I found one or two of the latter in good state of preservation. I found one limestone lens about two or three feet in diameter from which had weathered many specimens of small baculites showing the sutures very plainly, possibly young B. ovatus, and a few bivalves, with a fragment of some species of Scaphites and a couple of gastropods. We reached camp at 4:15, hastily broke camp and reached Big Thompson just below Loveland in time to set the tent before dark. Markman and Dodds went to town for provisions while Harry and I prepared the cots etc. At 9 p.m. Dodds returned and we had a good beefsteak supper, leaving some in the oven of the camp stove to keep warm for Markman, who returned at 10 p.m. just as I was ready to extinguish the light. It has been a hot, clear day. We are getting lots of alkali in the water now.
Big Thompson Creek, near Loveland. Sunday, June 10
Arose late, had breakfast of hot cakes. Got milk last night for first time. Starting in for a warm day, but at times cloudy. A slight breeze. We are camped on an island in a cottonwood grove. Has been cloudy and sultry this afternoon. We wrote postals and letters and Dodds went to town to mail them. I did not get through arranging, labelling, wrapping, and boxing mollusca and fossils collected yesterday and ay before until six o’clock, when we had stewed chicken and dumplings prepared by Harry. Harry is fishing and catching chubs etc. I have spent the entire afternoon in labelling and arranging the collections. Found more stuff stowed away after supper and worked until dark, with Dodds’ help. All retired at 10 p.m. My back was very lame from bending over the specimens so long at a time without proper work table. Put some fish in formaldehyde- two or three species. Markman has put up a few bird skins, young birds, but has not yet obtained any mammals.
Big Thompson Creek, near Loveland. Monday June 11, 1906.
Markman collected a garter snake before the rest of us were up this morning. Nothing in his traps. After breakfast, Markman went at his traps again, Dodds looked after camp affairs, while Harry and I took the big dip net and began dipping for mollusks, but the creek was high and quite roilly, so we could see nothing, hence worked at a disadvantage. We collected quite a number of Ancylus, however, clinging to the rocks which we fished out with the net, and a few insect larva. The creek was rising so rapidly that we concluded to pack up and get off the island before the water got too deep for fording. This warm weather means water too high for stream collecting. We got off the island at 10 p.m. (sic). Then Dodds drove into town to make some purchases, while the rest of us continued work, but with little success. Bullock orioles very abundant in the timber here. Markman caught a pocket gopher. Harry caught several species of fish in small stream with the net. We saw hundreds of Frundulus sp. Congregated at the mouth of small stream where the clear water flowed into the turbid Big Thompson. Collected several. Also collected Planorbis parvus, Physa sp., Limnaea sp. And Pisidium sp. in same small stream. Found a portion of a Strophites or Anodonta shell there also. Left Loveland at 1:30. Collected carp, catfish and on((e)) specimen of Physa (perhaps P. virgata) in a small, filthy brook about two miles N of Loveland and some Planorbis trivolvis, P. parvus and Physa sp. in a lake further north where they were very abundant. Dodds and I went west on foot finally to what I thought was an outcrop of the Fossil Ridge sandstone, and found it was so. The wagon went on to Trilby school house and camped in a pasture between the school house and Fossil Ridge. Just as we turned into the pasture, in crossing a furrow, the right hind wheel dished and is a complete wreck. We unloaded, got a pole under the axle, and dragged the wagon to a camping place. Also broke another spring, the front one. All hands take it philosophically and are thankful that there are still three wheels on. Finished labelling specimens at 10 p.m. and retired.
Fossil Ridge, Trilby Schoolhouse June 12, 1906, Tuesday Arose at 6:15; got breakfast and had the wagon taken apart and ready to load on a lumber wagon to take to town at 9 p.m. (sic). Then I went to the fossil beds while Harry went for another wagon to go to town, Dodds started out with the plant press and Markman went to town. Either a heavy dew fog or a little rain in the night as things about camp were wet. Am inclined to think it may have been fog, as it evidently creeped into the tent. This morning clouds hung low on the mountains, with an east wind, hot in the sun when sheltered from the wind, but cool and refreshing in the shade exposed to the breeze. Found fine fossils by breaking up big concretions in afternoon, Harry swinging the big sledge. Received mail for the first time since starting. In the evening Dodds and Markman developed photos until 10 p.m. in dark room of blankets thrown over tripod in tent.
Wednesday June 13
Markman and Harry both complain of sour stomachs this morning. Took some soda and went without their breakfasts. Refreshing breeze this morning, from the northeast. I peeled potatoes, then chiseled out and wrapped fossils until breakfast. Started for fossil beds at 9:30 a.m. Collected fossils until about 4 p.m., without food or drink, then brought a sackful of smaller ones to camp and wrapped and packed about 150 of them. Collected about 200 specimens today, mostly small bivalves – Callista, Volsella and Pteria, selecting only the best Inoceramus to show variation- also a few Pinna and Scaphites nodosus. Hot all day when sheltered from the breeze.
Thursday June 14, 1906
Up at 6 a.m., got to fossil beds at 9:15; Harry going with me. We took a canteen of water and a little lunch this time. Not quite so hot as yesterday. L. C. Bragg came out from the Agricultural College and spent an hour or so. While he was with us it rained hard and we got soaked. Fossil Ridge appears to extend for at least a mile below (south) camp (or perhaps two) and a mile northeast, so far as we have observed it. The formation much resembles the Hygiene sandstone at Left Hand Creek, but is full of great concretions of sandstone with an outer coating of iron oxide. It dips to the eastward at a very low angle. This in weathering makes a sloping escarpment to the west, with a rise, followed by a gentle slope to the east. Facing the westward escarpment is the upper Niobrara escarpment skirting the foothills as at Little Thompson Creek. The concretions are filled with fossils, Inoceramus oblongus predominately, Callista sp. abundant, many Pinna lakesi and Baculites compressus, besides other species. A very similar sandstone ridge outcrops to the east half a mile or so.
Friday, June 15, 1906 Harry and I took a big load of fossils and some recent mollusca, fungi and bird and mammal skins to Ft. Collins, packed and shipped them. Had great difficulty finding suitable boxes. Sent four big boxes by freight and one by express. Then got running gear of wagon and reached camp at 5 p.m., very tired. Has been a very hot day.
Saturday June 16, 1906
Mosquitos (sic) have been very troublesome at Trilby camp, particularly from 6 p.m. to 9 pm. Have not been bothered much by them except between those hours except at the alkali flat south of Little Thompson where they swarmed as we passed through both morning and evening. Their presence is especially noticeable in the neighborhood of alfalfa fields. Very hot morning. We set the wagon bed and top on running gear (a difficult undertaking without proper blocking etc.) and broke camp about 11 a.m. taking roads leading S and E for Greeley. I hastily examined the ridge paralleling Fossil Ridge to the east and found it to quite strongly resemble the materials of Fossil Ridge, but the concretions are not as rounded. Found a single fossil – apparently a young Inoceramus oblongus. Harry and I examined a very small, swampy lakelet N of the head of Poudre Valley Reservoir and found Limnaea sp., Physa sp., Planorbis trivolvis and P. parvus. These occurred in large numbers in the outlet of the lakelet. It was a great breeding place for water fowl and yellow headed blackbirds. In Poudre Valley Reservoir found no mollusks, but picked up three dead shells of Planorbis trivolvis on the beach. Saw an American avocet, black crowned night herons, and 9 great blue herons. We discovered that the tire of the new wheel which we obtained at Ft. Collins was not properly shrunken on, so the wheel is weak and we must drive with care, especially as the roads are abominably rough. Also discovered that the new front spring is weak, – nearly broken through one leaf. We blocked this up and went on. Markman shot two young night herons or bitterns at a lake south of Poudre valley Reservoir and we saw others. In a marsh we saw several Wilson’s phalaropes. Near Windsor we crossed what I believe is Fox Hills sandstone, dipping to east. Found no identifiable fossils. At Windsor, on N side of Cache La Poudre, we bought provisions, then went on to some bluffs about 4 miles down the river and camped. Had a little rain in afternoon accompanied by wind and lightning. For a mile or two E and W of Windsor it appeared to have rained hard.
Below Windsor, Sunday, June 17, 1906
Had a very windy night. I slept in the wagon last night and night before, Harry going into the tent. Cloudy this morning and windy. I prepared and catalogued the mollusks collected yesterday, then read papers and magazines received at Ft. Collins Friday. Harry and Dodds started down the valley soon after breakfast. It sprinkled at intervals, and finally, at 1:30 p.m., rained hard, continuing for half an hour or so, and sprinkling for some time later. Harry and Dodds came in drenched to the skin and we had dinner at 3 p.m. After dinner, I walked across to the bluffs S of the creek and found about 125 Veniella humilis, some Cardium speciosum, Mactra sp., Pholodomya sp. and other fossils in limestone concretions near base of the exposure and Placenticeras sp., Cardium speciosum, shark teeth, fish vertebrae and scales, Mactra sp., Tellina sp., Ostrea sp., Fucoides, etc. in the upper part of the exposure. The lower part of the exposure may be Pierre but the upper part is the typical greenish-yellow Fox Hills sandstone as is exposed below White Rock, with large concretions of sandstone with iron cement, flaking off horizontally in large scales practically the size of the concretions. The sandstone is quite soft, easily excavated with a knife. The Ostrea were well preserved, though thin, and valves were easily freed from sand on both sides with the knife. The other fossils were friable, the shell crumbling, leaving only casts. Some of the Mactra are very fine. The lower part of the exposure consists of alternating strata of thin bedded clay shales and sandstones, with limestone concretions from 3 to 6 feet in diameter. The Veniella broke out readily in large numbers from some of the weathered concretions, and more confined to concretions to concretions in a somewhat definite zone and to a narrow zone in each concretion. The whole formation looks horizontal when viewed from the north, but an east or west view of a north and south section shows a strong southerly dip.
Monday, June 18, 1906
Harry and I worked on the Paleontology of the Fox Hills sandstone, getting some fine specimens, While Dodds took care of his plants and Markman skinned birds. Had a hasty lunch at noon and started for Greeley at 1:30 where we arrived at 4:30 – 12 miles or more. Saw Jim Bartlett and Judge Southard, interviewed blacksmith, bought some supplies, got our mail and went into camp on the Cache la Poudre, at what is said to be City Park. It looks more like a private driving park, the only improvements being a race track, pavilion and stables. The other men printed and developed velox postal cards in the evening. County Attorney Carpenter and another attorney (cousin of Harry, name forgotten) called on us and promised us a map and letters to ranchers north and northeast of here. Has been clear and hot today.
Tuesday, June 19, 1906 The other three went to town to get supplies and have the wagon repaired. As the load is evidently too heavy for the wagon, they took the 10 gauge gun and ammunition, the cots, two suit cases and some other things to leave with Max Clark until our return, in order to lighten. I have cleared up all the dishes, compacted our load dredged the stream, which is very muddy here (finding a single dead Planorbis bicarinatus and one poor valve of a Pisidium) and now (11:30) have everything ready to load on the wagon as soon as it arrives. We will probably feed the horses, eat a hasty lunch, and start. I find we have lost my box containing fine dissecting, egg blowing and other instruments, fossils and mollusk catalogue, mollusk boxes etc. a serious loss. (Found later). We left Greeley at 2:30, changing our route for a longer trip. Drove through Eaton to Ault , arriving at latter place at 7 p.m.. Had a cold piercing gale all afternoon and were chilled with our slickers on. Camped at edge of town.
Wednesday June 20, 1906
Left Ault at 7:50 going north. Intended to drive past Boyd’s Big Springs, but missed the ranch. Drove through another ranch where there were water holes then on to the NE for Eastman’s Lake. Roads generally much better than from Boulder to Greeley. Occasional pass over hills covered with water worn debris from the mountains just like the mesa caps near Boulder, but not flat. Intermittent channels are also strewn with boulders and gravel and the soil generally sandy but hard. Saw plover with young, doves, horned larks, meadow larks, burrowing owls and lark buntings. At 1 p.m. we arrived at Spee’s homestead a mile west of where Eastman’s Reservoir is placed on our map and were informed that the reservoir is fully 7 miles further east, so we cut it out and started up Owl Creek for Slayton’s Ranch, that also being incorrectly mapped as being on Eastman Creek. Collected Physa at ranch 2 miles S of Slayton’s and reached Slayton’s at 6 p.m.
Thursday June 21, 1906
Harry and Markman obtained a team and light wagon from Slayton and started back for Eastman’s Reservoir this morning and Dodds and I took our wagon and started for Chalk Bluffs ((underline added later)). Had to drive over rough prairie for three miles, with no road, but fortunately found wire fence down and thus arrived some distance. We both walked several miles, Dodds went ahead and found the spring in a ravine in the bluffs. Camped, got dinner at 1:30 and started East on foot to examine formation at 2:15. First visited the isolated conglomerate butte a couple of miles east of camp. Conglomerate consists of pebbles of granite and other igneous rocks, limestone, sandstone, quartz, agate etc., very similar to those we have found lying on the prairie all day yesterday, but here cemented with a highly calcareous cement. This suggests the former extension of the formation southward and eastward, the loose pebbles being residue from the decomposition of the conglomerate and the washing away of the softer and finer portions. The conglomerate is not generally very well set, crumbling readily under the hammer, with a disagreeable odor somewhat resembling dog fennel, very irritating to the nostrils. It is about 60 ft. in thickness overlying the soft calcareous mud which characterizes the formation in general, the latter, with some harder bands, extending as deeply as erosion has reached- certainly not less than 100 ft. The conglomerate is strongly cross bedded in places, and some of the pebbles are 6 or 8 inches in diameter, though it is mostly coarse sand and gravel. Am unable to correlate this bed with any of the conglomerates in the bluff proper, though it may represent the cap of the bluffs, which is, generally speaking, thoroughly disintegrated leaving only beds of pebbles etc. In the bluffs east of camp where our informants, messrs Carpenter and Baker had indicated fossils on the map and told us they stood out prominently in vast numbers, we found only peculiar concretions, several inches in horizontal diameter and sometimes several feet in vertical dimensions, forming all sorts of peculiar shapes and sometimes running into each other, weathering horizontally into terraces of from 2 to 10 feet in height and vertically into fantastic shapes, often resembling bones of large animals. They are much harder than the formation in general and the terracing suggests their segregation by waters moving along planes represented by the terraces. True bedding planes are not noticeable where the formation has become entirely concretionary and even in many other places the formation is massive, but in other places it is well stratified. We returned to camp at 4:30 and busied ourselves about camp. Harry and Markman came in just before dark on foot and very tired. We saw them crossing the prairie and had a hot supper of fried ham and potatoes ready for them and us. After dark we loaded plateholders and got to bed at 10:30. Harry and Markman got nothing except some fossil wood and cannonball concretions.
Friday, June 22, 1906
Got up at 6 a.m., shaved and took some pictures before the others were up. Harry not very well. After breakfast Dodds and I started west, over the terraces. Found the thick conglomerate of Conglomerate Butte outcropping in a number of places, but not at all continuous through the entire formation. In one exposure W of camp giving nearly a complete section it is entirely wanting, while on the next butte east it is well developed. To the northward of the latter it is seen on the first hills but not beyond. A thinner bed lower down seems more continuous here, but it plays out a short distance to the west. Some of the numerous terraces throughout the formation are conglomeratic but most of them are concretionary. Marls greatly predominate, quite soft except in concretions, effervescing strongly under acid throughout, including conglomerate. Numerous caverns are formed under overhanging ledges by dissolution of the marl beneath the conglomerate. In one place a cavern extended 18 feet back and numerous chimneys admitted storm waters, making underground drainage for some distance. Streams are sand creeks, water from springs disappearing at once, flood waters from storms choked with sand, forming almost flat beds, with steep walls, almost perpendicular. In one place a strong conglomerate passes within three or four feet into marl, with no signs of faulting. Beds are approximately horizontal, but in one place on escarpment the thick conglomerate shows a decided dip to SE. However it appears to have pitched forward into that position. W of camp there is a decided unconformity between the thick conglomerate and the marl. At first sight this seemed possibly the result of the conglomerate pressing into the soft mud, but the strata above continuing unbroken and straight vetoes this idea unless the boulders and gravel pressed in as they were deposited ((drawing in field book)). At the NW (lefthand end of section) conglomerate rapidly passes into marl, not by thinning out, but by intercalation of strata of marl between narrow strata of conglomerate. Here as elsewhere, the line dividing the conglomerate from the underlying marl is abrupt, no gradation. The two places in above section marked by circles are occupied at base by boulders. In many places the conglomerate as well as the marl are concretionary. Went down to the conglomerate butte east of camp about 11 a.m. and photographed it and the concretions north of it. Broke camp at 2 p.m. and arrived at deserted ranch west of Gault P.O. at 6 p.m. where we went into camp. After supper several neighboring ranchers called at camp, including A. B. Hilton, to whom I had letters of introduction from Herbert Baker and Chas. E Southard. Wind blew all night last night and for a while this morning, shaking the wagon in which I slept. About noon it rained at intervals and on the road to Gault it rained and hailed hard several times, with a cold, disagreeable northeast wind. Harry and I went home with Mr. Hilton to see his specimens, and at 9 p.m. it was raining hard and very dark so we remained all night.
Saturday, June 23, 1906
Arose at 5:30 a.m. and Harry and I started for camp with fresh milk and eggs which Mr. Hilton gave us. Very cold northeast wind. Cloudy. Broke camp at 8:35 a.m. and started east Reaching Grover on the B and M RR at 3 p.m. a distance of 16 miles in 6 hours and 25 minutes. We had a cold head wind and rain all the way and poor roads. Camped in the lee of the school house barn at Grover and turned horses into school yard. We were all wet and thoroughly chilled. Had a good dinner of salmon loaf covered with peas, then went to store, then built a fire in the camp stove at entrance of tent and sat somewhat comfortably in the tent. All retired at 8 p.m.
Sunday June 24, 1906
Rained nearly all night, quite hard at times. Hard wind part of the night. Sun shining this morning but still cloudy, wind changed to westerly. Rained again while we were getting breakfast of mush and milk and crackers. At 10:30 we started to move camp. Very heavy roads. Had occasion to reprove Harry for his impatience and loss of temper. I walked all the way from Grover. Dodds and I left the trail about 5 miles from Grover and examined the bluffs north of the road. The formation appears to be the same as the base of the Chalk Bluffs but the escarpment is more nearly vertical, instead of being so markedly terraced by conglomerates and concretionary bands. The upper part of the bluffs, however, are irregularly concretionary and in many places the underlying marls have assumed a whitish color and are very soft, the irregularity of the white band s strongly resembling unconformity, the dividing lines being very abrupt. The debris slope is a gently curve to the south, as at Chalk Bluffs, winding ravines 10 to 25 ft. in depth, with steep walls extending out for a mile or so until they shallow to nothingness, leaving the prairie beyond free from ravines. All slopes of marked grade, however, are terraced, the terraces being a few inches in height, making the best travelling along the beds of the swales below the terrace line. The bluffs here have a decided tendency to weather into circular towers with nearly vertical walls. The ravines leading out through the debris slope generally have flat bottoms, but in one or two there was a secondary ravine perhaps caused by the washing out of cattle trail along the center. We reached camp at Davis ranch at 5:30, much sooner than we expected. Are camped in one of the ravines which extends back into the bluffs. Loaded plateholders after dark
Monday June 25, 1906
Got up early and went to work. I worked all day in the hot sun and found nothing worth bringing in. At noon Dodds brought in a good fossil jaw bone and some teeth. Is not yet in this evening (5:30). Formation here resembles Chalk Bluffs, but the conglomerates are composed more largely of waste of underlying rocks with less debris from the mountains. Am terribly fatigued with so much hard climbing and being on my feet since 6 a.m., so gave up at 5:30. Dodds came in at 6 p.m. with nothing more. Harry arrived at 8 p.m. with part of a jaw and Markman came later. It rained after Markman arrived, wind north. Had mush and milk for supper.
Tuesday, June 26, 1906
I started west with Dodds and Harry and worked along the cliffs. At last point of the bluffs but one to the west Dodds found a small turtle in clay about 1/3 of way to top and we chiseled it out ((.)) around the point to northeastward he found a portion of a jawbone in about the same horizon and near by I found a turtle. We got out the former but the latter was too badly shattered. Further east in the base of the conglomerate I found another turtle and Dodds and I worked on it until 6 p.m., when we had it uncovered for 3 ft in length and 2 « in width and quit for the night. It is on the hanging wall, where the conglomerate overhangs so we may not be able to extract him. The formation is not favorable to extraction. Near where we got the first turtle we encountered a beautiful little spotted adder as we walked along a narrow ledge. Harry was in advance. I passed him the big gloves and the cyanide bottle and we collected the snake. Further along I killed a big rattlesnake, the first one I have seen on this trip. Mockingbirds are common here, as also the Arkansas kingbird, Say phoebe, barn and cliff swallows, white throated swifts and meadowlarks. Harry had some rhubarb pies made and Markman had a salmon loaf ready when Dodds and I arrived in camp, very tired. Has been a very hot day with a few fleecy clouds.
Wednesday, June 27, 1906
Arose at 6 a.m. Hot morning. Dodds and I went work on the fossil turtle, while Harry started to hunt the missing mare and Dodds ((Markman?)) skinned birds. Harry got Mr. Davis to hunt the mare and joined us at 1 p.m. We got the turtle nearly cut out, resting with carapace downward on a pinnacle of rock at 5:30 and began pasting cheesecloth around it, starting for camp at 6:30. Wind blew all afternoon, filling our eyes with dust as we worked and making it very disagreeable. Found the mare at camp when we returned and Markman had supper ready. It was very hard work digging in cramped quarters all afternoon.
Thursday June 28, 1906
Not quite so hot this morning on account of cool easterly breeze. Sun very bright. Yesterday morning with a very heavy load, including 1 gallon of water, camp bottle of paste, bolt of cheese cloth in camp pack, big pick, heavy hammer, light picks, chisels boards etc. It took Dodds and me 1 ¬ hours to walk over here. This morning with 1 two quart canteen of water and a few crackers I walked it in 45 minutes. The turtle is near the base of concretionary stratum at top of cliff. The others soon joined me and we padded beneath the fossil all around with a moss like chickweed and the tender young shoots of mountain mahogany. Then while the three steadied the fossil I chipped away the supporting pinnacle. It dropped easily onto the cushion just as we had planned. We easily turned it over. Then Dodds started to Grover to order lumber and sawdust, Harry started to look at his mammal traps and Markman and I finished encasing the turtle in tissue paper, cheesecloth and gunny sacks, completing this at 11 a.m. Then we began prospecting for more fossils. Came in at 3:30, had a lunch and then I went to work collecting, pinning and labeling insects, while Markman and Harry went out for birds. Harry caught a hairy tailed rat in his traps. Twas fairly cool in the morning, exceedingly hot in the afternoon and just before sundown a wind too cool for comfort sprang up. Markman killed a rattlesnake. We average about one a day. Brewer’s blackbird is common here. There are hundreds of abandoned hawks nests in these cliffs and many still in use. Last night Dodds left his collecting bag at the big turtle and this morning the shoulder strap was eaten through by small rodents. They did not injure the straps of the camp pack nor the paste, which latter was in a bottle covered with gunnysacks, nor did they nibble the layers of cheese cloth pasted on the fossil. Friday, June 29, 1906
Dodds and Markman took the wagon around to the fossil turtle this morning, while Harry and I walked across the hill, examining his traps and collecting insects on the way. Found two rates in traps. We boxed the turtle with the two inch planks which Dodds got yesterday, sawing the planks with my small trimming saw. We used the dry moss-like plants of the vicinity for packing, graded a road on the face of the cliff just below the conglomeratic shelf, to a point where the debris slope was smooth, then let it down to where we could back the wagon up to an embankment and loaded it on the wagon. Harry and Markman then took it to Grover for shipment, finding that it weighed 640 pounds as boxed. Dodds and I collected plants and insects on our way to camp. At camp I took a bath and changed my underwear and shirt, then labelled and pinned about 75 insects finishing at 8:45 p. m., while Dodds was getting supper ready to go into the stove. The boys came with the wagon at 9 p.m., and a few moments afterwards we had a good supper- salmon loaf covered with peas and crackers, cake and cocoa. The last few days have been altogether too strenuous. We are all sore and tired and very thankful the big turtle is off our hands.
Saturday June 30, 1906
Left camp without load in wagon at 9 a.m.. Reached Pawnee Buttes at 12:30, via Joe Dolan’s place. Fed horses and ate lunch , then went on SE. Markman found fossil jaw bone at the West Butte. Formation about the same as at Davis ranch. Below buttes country more cut up by erosion than valley at Davis’ but no dissected escarpment. We passed Martha Sebosky’s shack on the way to Fitche’s and as Hilton had urged, we made a very hasty search for fossil teeth but found none. Then went to Fitche’s where we arrived at 4:40 and did no work. Started back by a more southerly route. The formation around Martha Sebosky’s has a decided tendency to change from yellowish to whitish, passing rather abruptly from one to the other and the upper part is emphatically a sandstone. (By the way, the formation where we dug out the turtle put an abrupt point on the picks in digging.)
Sunday, July 1, 1906
Sprinkled at breakfast time, then cleared with steady northerly wind. We left camp in gulch at Davis ranch at 9:15, going a mile or so south to Jackson ranch. Then southwesterly over rolling prairie for Crow Creek. Crossed B & MRR where Sligo once was. There is not a building now or even a sidetrack at the lagoon near a cabin ((.)) about 10 miles S of Grover is a ledge of quartz sandstone. Here we collected some red evening primroses a species new to me. About two miles further on we saw three antelopes, the only ones yet seen on the trip except one east of Slayton’s, I believe. Near a lagoon 15 miles SE of Grover, while collecting batrachians, we saw another antelope, a doe. Most common bird is the shore lark, next the lark bunting, a few meadowlarks and plover. Harry killed a fine American Rough-legged hawk. Saw first dove at Crow Creek. Came 25 miles today over a rolling prairie road which did not pass a fence or inhabited house, with only a single buggy track made since last Sunday’s storm, and saw but one person after leaving Jackson’s ranch- a solitary horseman some distance from the road. Road good much of the way, but crossing many wide lagoon-like stretches which were particularly bad. In Crow Creek we find water in frequent waterholes, separated by a few feet of moist ground, inhabited by Sphaerium, Physa, Planorbis, crayfish, frogs, fish (Fundulus) etc., banks lined with fine willows and a few cottonwoods. Reached here at 4:30. Find magpies here and mocking big (sic). Before supper we found a place where Sphaerium are very abundant, and in addition collected two species of Physa and Planorbis trivolvis, P. bicarinatus, and P. parvus. Also found turtles, green water beetles and leeches. Rained at dark and continued for some time after we retired.
Monday, July 2, 1906
Examined the creek bluffs below camp. At the top is a zone several (4 or 5) ft. in thickness of bituminous shale containing abundant plant fragments, underlaid by white sandstone all badly weathered and very soft, containing iron concretions. Below this is a hard stratum of sandstone a foot or two thick, which presents a strangely krinkled appearance on its weathered surfaces. Strong north wind makes work disagreeable. I found an ironstone concretion containing gasteropods resembling Vivipara and some bivalves resembling Corbicula and collected 70 and Harry found a stratum at the dam and collected therefrom 110 bivalves of two or more species. We then had lunch, fed the team and started down creek. On the way down I collected 40 more at the same place where Harry had worked while the others were looking at hawks nests. About 7 to 9 miles further down creek found a heronry and discovered an outcrop from which I took 75 specimens of Ostrea glabra and Corbicula, making a total of 400 specimens for the day. Also found a ledge containing many gasteropoda, so we went a mile down creek where we could get water from a well and camped. Have seen no water in creek since leaving last camp. Road has followed creek and is poor, with many gates. The fossils collected today have been fine. Pleasant this evening.
Tuesday, July 3, 1906
Arose at 5:30, had breakfast and Harry and I started for the fossil beds at 7:20. Markman and Dodds joined us at 10:30 and by 11 a.m. we had 756 specimens. The wagon was all loaded and Markman and Dodds started to drive down west side of Crow Creek, while Harry and I walked a couple of miles on east side and then joined the wagon. Reached Greeley at 5 p.m. boxed and shipped the plants, fossils etc. and drove north one mile to cache la Poudre to camp. Had a good beefsteak supper with bread, the first we have had for a long time. I am puzzled about the formation at last night’s camp. O. glabra, Viviparus (sic) and one specimen of Physa indicates Laramie but some of the other species look marine to me, which would indicate Fox Hills. At the brow of the gentle slope are great quantities of Ostrea glabra and fragments of some other bivalve broken from iron concretions and “cone-in-cone”. In one place large numbers of gasteropods were broken from iron concretions. Down the hill some distance is a perfect mass of bivalves of several species, including a few gasteropods which I take for Viviparus. A short distance to the south a gulch has exposed what appears to be typical Laramie white sandstone containing “cannonball” concretions. As we found no other exposures except recent I am compelled suspect that this locality, though said to be 18 miles from Greeley, is the place called 15 NE of Greeley in the reports, from which ten or more Laramie species have been described. Has been a fine day but the air feels decidedly frosty tonight.
Wednesday July 4, 1906
People were passing along the road until midnight, and most of them Halloed as they passed the camp. At 5 a.m. they began passing again on way to Greeley to take early excursion trains for Boulder and Eaton to see the Fourth of July celebration. Now 8:30 a.m. and Markman is just dressing while Harry is still in bed. We had the cots again which we left in Greeley on our way north two weeks ago. Packed for shipment some of the outfit which we will not need again and left Greeley at noon, passing through Evans, then crossing Platte to east side, recrossing to west side about 7 miles from Evans at the Twin Bridge. We camped at 4:30 on Big Thompson (S. side), two or three miles below mouth of Little Thompson. While Dodds and Markman made a dry camp in a pasture, getting water from an nearby farm house, Harry and I started to examine the bluffs north of the creek, wading across. The formation is typical Fox Hills sandstone. Found Cardium speciosum, shark tooth and other fossil mollusks at base of exposure. Near the top I found fossil leaves which I at first took for Laramie species, and above it found numbers of Ostrea glabra, but a thorough search brought to light a single specimen of Cardium speciosum in the upper stratum so that settled its Fox Hills age. Reached camp at 6:30 and had pea soup, canned salmon and bread and butter, with peaches.
Thursday, July 5, 1906
At 6 a.m. I went to the stream with the big net looking for mollusks, but found none except some small Physas and Planorbis parvus. Reached the wagon at 7:30. Breakfast was ready. We got the wagon loaded and started at 9:20. Reached mouth of St. Vrain 5 miles distant at 10 a.m. and explored the Fox Hills deposits there. At the top we found a coarse conglomerate, some of the pebbles derived from the mountains measuring two or three inches in diameter. Beneath that a few feet is a two foot stratum composed almost entirely of Ostrea sp., with a sandstone matrix. The greater part of the beds are typical Fox Hills sandstone, with long concretions such as those at White Rocks, and other more tabular and extensive one which cause the formation to weather into broad-capped pinnacles. Found a few fish vertebra and some fine fucoids. Lower down, Markman and Harry found a number of species. At the base of the river cliffs are intercalated strata of shales which may be Pierre. Left there at 1:45 p.m. Reached Longmont 18 or 20 miles away at 6:30 p.m. Two livery men refused us hay and W. H. Diebens refused to allow us to camp in an unoccupied pasture, the first such refusal we have met. Camped in another pasture across on the S side of creek and W side of road. Finished supper at 9 oclock (sic).
Thursday (sic) July 6, 1906
Left Longmont at 7:35 – reached Boulder at 11:45 a.m.
Arapahoe Glacier Trip 1906
Aug 31, 1906 Friday
Left Boulder at 9:30 a.m. on narrow guage (sic) accompanied by Sievert Rohwer, Mrs. Cockerell, Prof. Daniels, of ((left blank)), Miss McCoy, Miss Sheldon and her father. Clear morning but clouds more or less by traintime. Stormed after leaving Bluebird mine. Reached Eldora at 1 p.m, got dinner at Gold Miner Hotel, then went up gulch collecting mollusca. Found Zonitoides arboreus very abundant under logs in quaking aspens, a few Vitrina pfeifferi, some Vallonia cyalophorella, one juvenile Agriolimax, probably the black form of campestris. At Hessie found quite a number of Pisidium sp., varying from nearly central beaks to posterior beaks, covered with iron rust and very closely resembling the sand in which they are found. It threatened storm during early afternoon, but cleared toward evening. Called up Mrs. Rohwer after supper and found Nellie was no better, threatened with tonsillitis.
Saturday Sept 1, 1906
It rained toward morning and blew hard all night. Mrs. Gardiner arrived on the night train at 11 p.m. We were all up at 5:30 a.m., had breakfast at 6 a.m., but did not get our horses until 7 p.m. (sic), got away at 8:20 a.m. for peak, Mrs.(sic) Sheldon, Mrs. Cockerell and Miss McCoy riding in carriage with John Lilly, driver, and the others on horseback. Reached shaft house of 4th of July Mine at 10 a.m. Sievert and I reached saddle ahead of others, took our pictures, then I went down into glacial cirque, Sievert, Mrs. Gardiner, Miss McCoy, Miss Sheldon and Mrs. Cockerell coming down later. Found considerable shrinkage on the north side, the ice being 20 feet from the big boulder on the north moraine, very noticeable shrinkage on the south side, none just west of the terminal lake. The crevasses were pretty well filled with fresh last year’s snow except the larger ones. When we again reached the rim of the cirque, Sievert and Miss McCoy went to the top . We were caught in snow and rain and on the way down it rained hard most of the way. We were all soaked. Had supper about 7:15 p.m. Then I called Mrs. Rohwer and found Nellie was no better, so I will go down on the morning train.
Marshall, Colo. Feby 9, 1907
Drove out at 9:30 with Dr. Ramaley, G. S. Dodds and Sievert Rohwer. On the bluff about due S of Marshall Station , near the bluff line and East of the steep point we collected a lot of fossil leaves of various species. They were where excavations for coal had been made. SW of the station, west of the bluff point in an old open cut in the hillside we found large numbers of large fossil leaves which I take for a species of Ficus (fig.) Reached home at 6:30
Four miles N of Boulder, Colo. Feby 12, 1907
Sievert and Frank Rohwer and I started at 9:45. Drove to where private road crosses the mesa about 3 « miles N of Boulder and there left the rig. Where the private road crosses the Hygiene sandstone (Pierre Cretaceous) in the SW ¬ of Sec. 6, Tp. 1N, R 70 WW., we found a fossiliferous zone about 30 feet from top of exposure; 1 Baculites ovatus, 15 Inoceramus sp., a fragment of wood, some seaweeds ? and worm or mollusk burrows. Above and below this horizon the sandstone seemed barren, except for apparent seaweeds. N of the gulch which cuts this mesa off on the north and about 200 to 300 yards east of the west line of section 6, consequently beneath the Hygiene sandstone, we found numerous Baculites, perhaps both ovatus and compressus, and Inoceramus barabini. Traced this horizon northeastward for half a mile or so . The strike here is northeastward and the dip southwestward, hence Hygiene sandstone here makes a NE-SW ridge, but near N line of section it turns northward. In the gully on N side of a gulch in NE ¬ Sec 6, perhaps 300 yds W of ranch and section line fence, consequently above Hygiene sandstone, I found 3 small specimens of Scaphites nodosus. Along the north fence of the mesa in SW ¬ sec 6 and 200 to 300 yards W of east line of section, 40 or 50 ft. below top of exposure we found a calcareous sandstone a few inches in thickness containing large numbers of Inoceramus vanuxemi. Collected about 40 specimens. Beneath this was a horizon containing I. Sagensis in which I found a cephalopod which is puzzling me and a fossil which I cannot place at all, even as to family. The two last mentioned horizons remind me of those bearing similar relations about a mile SW of there. In a higher horizon, just E of the W line of sec 5 we found a fine lot of Inoceramus barabini, many with the sulcus upon which Whitfield founded the genus Eudoceras, with a few I. sagensis and I. vanuxemi and numbers of Ostrea inornata. Feby 17, 1907
Sievert Rohwer and I walked out to the same place to make sure of localities in afternoon and found them correct. Just S of N line of SW ¬ SW ¬ Sec 5, Tp 1 N, R. 70 W., and E of the fossil locality in that quarter section we found a 2 ft. bed of conglomerate consisting of mountain debris and angular fragments of Hygiene sandstone apparently cemented by a calcareous infiltration, at the base of the mesa boulder cap and resting directly upon Pierre shales. East of there, in about the NW cor of NW ¬ NE ¬ Sec 8, Tp. 1 N, R. 70 W., we found a sandstone much resembling the Hygiene, dipping SE but dip slight, on N face of mesa. Found a few fragments of Ostrea and Inoceramus, undeterminable, former turned up sharply at sides and attached to the latter, much resembling O. congesta from the Niobrara. This may be the equivalent of the sandstone in the pasture NE of Haystack Butte, as well as the one found by us today in the SE corn of NE ¬ NE ¬ or NE cor SE ¬ NE ¬ sec. 7 Tp 1 N., R. 70 W in N edge of gulch near E line of section. This supposition would make it strike nearly the same as the underlying Hygiene sandstone.
N of Boulder, Feby 22, 1907
Sievert Rohwer and I went out on horseback to sketch in the map E of W line sec. 7 Tp. 1 N., R. 70 W., E of little house in adjoining sec. Found Hygiene sandstone very steep, but it flattens as it passes over Four Mile Mesa to the north, this accounting for widening of outcrop. In SE ¬ sec. 6 we collected Heteroceras sp., Ancycloceras tricostatus, Lucina occidentalis, Inoceramus barabini, and sagensis etc. in gulch at station 7 in sec. 6 Tp 1N R 71W.
N of Boulder Feby 23, 1907
Sievert Rohwer, Frank Rohwer and I went north today, collected fossils. In sandstone at Station 8, sec 7 Tp 1 N R 70 W found I. vanuxemi, I barabini and I. sagensis in poor condition and 1 B. cf. compressus just at W line of section and about intersection with E and W « of section line. Bluff E of there station 3 sec 8 contained I. sagensis in limestone concretions. Bluff is sandy in black shale. In lateral gulch at station 4 SE cor NE ¬ SW ¬ Sec 8 we found I. barabini and sagensis. Dip all SE gentle. Found sandstone again at station 6 NE cor NW ¬ SE ¬ Sec. 8. E of there clay is yellow. On S front of Four Mile Mesa Hygiene sandstone reaches W line sec. 6 Tp 1 N R 70 W. On N slope of mesa it trends rapidly to the northeast. In the NE ¬ SE ¬ sec. 6 Tp 1 N R 70 W the upper part of the Pierre exposure on N slope of mesa weathers yellowish.
Denver, Colo., Mch 2. 1907
Prof. Geo. L. Cannon and I went out to the creek S of Cheltenham Schoolhouse in West Denver. The creek is locally known as Dry Creek, but to distinguish it from a dozen other “dry Creeks” Cannon proposes the name Green Mountain Creek as its tributaries find their sources in Green Mountain, a foothill to the west. In the street south of the schoolhouse at the SE corner of the schoolyard we found a new trench 8 feet deep which did not reach bed rock , while a short distance E the Denver sandstone came to the surface. Then a little further it dropped again. The first mentioned drop was evidently a lateral gulch, while the other was the original bluffs of the South Platte Valley, which was afterward filled by the river and since excavated again by the same stream. At Green Mountain Creek we found original bluffs of the north side of a valley, perhaps 100 ft. in depth, which was afterwards filled by stream action, and has since been excavated by the creek. Quere, was the filling done by the creek or by the Platte or by joint action of both. I found no break between the deposit and the undoubted river deposit downstream toward the mouth of the creek. Cannon has not found any Denver sandstone south of the present creek channel cutting it from the river channel, from which it may be inferred that it was part of the original channel. The character of the deposit, too, is more in accord with the idea of deposition by flood waters of a large stream. Prof. Cannon, however, says that long observation teaches him that there is a vague, indescribable, indefinable difference between the intercalated gravel beds in Green Mt. Creek valley and those in the main valley. If the deposits are distinct in origin, the gravels of the Platte deposits should contain elements derived from South Platte Canyon which could not well occur in Green Mountain debris. These gravel beds are local, irregular and usually of small extent so far as my observation today goes. The original Denver sandstone bluffs were irregular in outline and deeply incised by lateral gulches. Three former land surfaces were usually discernable: 1) The Denver sandstone, very irregular. 2) A sort of loessoid deposit containing occasional pebbles of fair size suspended somewhat regularly sloping down toward the present bed of the valley. 3) Loose material plainly derived the higher ground in the nature of talus thus ((drawing in field book)). The talus was thinnest above thickening down slope. The Denver beds were massive above with few joints, more argillaceous and thinner bedded below, thoroughly jointed by irregular joints shown by weathered surfaces. It struck me that these lower deposits showed origin similar to the river deposits. The pebbles and small boulders contained in these river deposits as well as in the loessoid were usually rounded, with some flattish surfaces and sometimes angular, suggesting transportation some distance at a time by strong floods without much wear, as often occurs nowadays. The pebbles left on the surface by wind erosion are of quartz, hornblende rock, andesite etc. – mountain debris. Throughout this plains region erosion and deposition have frequently progressed with terrific rapidity during great storms. Prof, cannon showed me one place where a gulch about 50 ft. in depth was cut through the loessoid and river deposits, to bedrock (Denver sandstone), by a single storm NE of Cheltenham Schoolhouse. At brick kiln in S bluff of Green Mt. Creek we visited place from which Cannon, Bethel and Marvin had sent Quaternary fossils and collected Pupilla muscorum, which were abundant in one stratum, Vallonia gracillicosta, Succinea grosvenori and 2 specimens of Lymnaea sp. The latter had not been seen by me before. We did not find Planorbis parvus, which Cannon had found there. In a lateral gulch, in West bluffs of the Platte, NE of Cheltenham schoolhouse, we found one larger specimen of Succinea grosvenori in deposits of aeolian origin probably, as the opposite bluff of the gulch is undoubtedly aeolian. Well up the hill N of the latter point a street cut exposed acqueous deposits dipping SE perhaps 6 or 8 degrees or more, and quite regular in stratification. Does this indicate folding in recent times. N of Boulder, Colo., Apl 5/07 Drove north in morning, taking Frank Rohwer and Clinton Fullen with me. Visited station 2, sec 12 Tp 1 N R 70 W and found some poorly preserved Inoceramus sp. and fragments of Baculites sp. This station is some distance above the base of the Pierre group, instead of being at the base as I had supposed. W of this station I found the boulder cap of the mesa cemented into a conglomerate by a calcareous cement, as at station 3, sec 5 tp 1 N, R 70 W. Of course this being W of the Hygiene sandstone there are no Hygiene fragments, as at sta. 3 in sec. 5. We then went N to the “paper” shales, collected some I. labiatus, a shark tooth and 2 specimens of the undescribed cephalopod which I collected N of Left Hand in the Benton Cretaceous. In the Niobrara shales, just above the basal limestone, we found the Inoceramus deformis greatly flattened, except one or two specimens. This may have been due to pressure, but it did not appear to be. They are in a yielding shale. Thence we took the road connecting the roads along the E and W lines of Secs. 30 and 31 and near where it connects with the E section road, not far below the Hygiene sandstone I found a sea urchin, Baculites ovatus, Inoceramus barabini and Heteroceras sp. ((end of notebook 1))
1 Field Notes of Junius Henderson-notebook 1